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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 28, 1952

[Clinical significance of abdominal-reflex dissociation]


[1. The behaviour of the abdominal skin reflex and abdominal muscle reflex was investigated in 500 subjects. Seven pathologies were found to have complete or true abdominal reflex dissociation: myelopathy 86.6%, multiple sclerosis 77%, syringomyelia 75%, tumor spinalis 53.3%, hemiplegia 28.8%, tabes 11.5%, neurolues 9.2%. Partial dissociation was observed in parkinsonism (5%) and neurasthenia (2%), the significance of which is debatable. The number of cases of syringomyelia is too small to draw conclusions. 2. Dissociation is most frequent in the 3 pathologies whose clinical differentiation is particularly difficult (multiple sclerosis, myelopathy, spinal cord tumour). Within these, the percentages for multiple sclerosis and myelopathy are almost identical. 3. Complete or true abdominal reflex dissociation is most often seen in multifocal spinal diseases. It has no pathognomonic value, but it can be evaluated with a 77 and 86.6% probability in clinical symptomatology in multiple sclerosis and myelopathy, respectively. 4. The examination of the abdominal muscle reflex and thus the search for abdominal reflex dissociation is a valuable and important data in organic neurology.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2021

Fatal outcome of cervical myelopathy caused by fibrocartilaginous embolism. Rare cause of spinal vascular damage

FOLYOVICH András, HAVAS László, VADÁSZ Gizella, FEHÉR Ágnes, VADASDI Károly, SZABÓ Zsolt, TÓTH Kornélia, BÉRES-MOLNÁR Anna Katlin, TOLDI Gergely

Fibrocartilaginous embolism is a rare cause of ischemic myelopathy. Authors report a case of a 39-year-old woman with progressive tetraparesis and severe autonomic dysfunction. Despite of the detailed examinations, the definite diagnosis was verified by autopsy. The patient was admitted because of progressive pain and numbness of the upper extremities and tetraparesis. Hypotonic muscles of the lower extremities with mild tetraparesis were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary lesion at the level of the cervical V-VII vertebral. Patient’s tetraparesis worsened gradually to plegia with urinary retention. Expansive, rapidly progressing multiple decubiti developed, which were resistant to therapy. In spite of the complex therapy, the patient died. No internal disease was found to explain the death by autopsy. Multiple subacute infarctions of the cervical myelon (involving the lateral columns as well) in the territory of the anterior spinal artery were verified by neuropathological examination. The occluded vessels were filled by a material containing cartilaginous cells, while signs of atherosclerosis or thrombosis were not present. Cartilaginous embolism of spinal arteries was diagnosed.

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2021

Acute transverse myelitis after inactivated COVID-19 vaccine

ERDEM Şimşek Nazan, DEMIRCI Seden, ÖZEL Tuğba , MAMADOVA Khalida, KARAALI Kamil , ÇELIK Tuğba Havva , USLU Ilgen Ferda, ÖZKAYNAK Sibel Sehür

Vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been rapidly developed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is increasing safety concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccines. We report a 78-year old woman who was presented with tetraparesis, paresthesias of bilateral upper extremities, and urinary retention of one-day duration. Three weeks before these symptoms, she was vaccinated with CoronaVAC vaccine (Sinovac Life Sciences, China). Spine magnetic resonance imaging showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (TM) from the C1 to the T3 spinal cord segment. An extensive diagnostic workup was performed to exclude other possible causes of TM. We suggest that longitudinally extensive TM may be associated with COVID-19 vaccination in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of longitudinally extensive TM developing after CoronaVac vaccination. Clinicians should be aware of neurological symptoms after vaccination of COVID-19.

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 20, 1996

[Intracranial respiratory epithelial cysts: report of two cases]


[The authors report two cases of leptomeningeal cysts with unusual histologic features. Both cysts originated in the subarachnoid space of the left Sylvian fissure, being solitary in one case and multiocular in the other. Symptoms in both cases were referable to intracranial space occupation. Both lesions were resected surgically. Microscopically, the cyst walls were predominantly lined with pseudostratified and ciliated columnar or non-keratinizing squamous epithelium reminiscent of various segments of the respiratory mucosa. Ependymal covering was present only focally. The cellular elements displayed a characteristic immunophenotype and there was evidence for mucin production. Intracranial respiratory epithelial cysts are distinctly rare. While a dysontogenic origin is presumed for such cysts are distinctly rare. While a dysontogenic origin is persumed for such cysts along the spinal cord, intracranial occurrences are most plausibly interpreted as a result of metaplastic transformation of the meningeal anlage induced by cyst expansion. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2020

[The complex intensive care and rehabilitation of a quadriplegic patient using a diaphragm pacemaker]

FODOR Gábor, GARTNER Béla, KECSKÉS Gabriella

[A 21 year female polytraumatized patient was admitted to our unit after a serious motorbike accident. We carried out CT imaging, which confirmed the fracture of the C-II vertebra and compression of spinal cord. Futhermore, the diagnostic investigations detected the compound and comminuted fracture of the left humerus and femur; the sacrum and the pubic bones were broken as well. After the stabilization of the cervical vertebra, a tracheotomy and the fixation of her limbs were performed. She spent 1.5 years in our unit. Meanwhile we tried to fix all the medical problems related to tetraplegia and respiratory insufficiency. As part of this process she underwent an electrophysiological examination in Uppsala (Sweden) and a diaphragm pacemaker was implanted. Our main goal was to reach the fully available quality of life. It is worth making this case familiar in a wider range of public as it could be an excellent example for the close collaboration of medical and non-medical fields.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2020

Life threatening rare lymphomas presenting as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: a diagnostic challenge

TOLVAJ Balázs, HAHN Katalin, NAGY Zsuzsanna, VADVÁRI Árpád, CSOMOR Judit, GELPI Ellen, ILLÉS Zsolt, GARZULY Ferenc

Background and aims – Description of two cases of rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma and secondary T-cell lymphoma diagnosed postmortem, that manifested clinically as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). We discuss causes of diagnostic difficulties, deceptive radiological and histological investigations, and outline diagnostic procedures based on our and previously reported cases. Case reports – Our first case, a 48-year-old female was admitted to the neurological department due to paraparesis. MRI suggested LETM, but the treatments were ineffective. She died after four weeks because of pneumonia and untreatable polyserositis. Pathological examination revealed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Our second case, a 61-year-old man presented with headache and paraparesis. MRI showed small bitemporal lesions and lesions suggesting LETM. Diagnostic investigations were unsuccessful, including tests for possible lymphoma (CSF flow cytometry and muscle biopsy for suspected IVL). Chest CT showed focal inflammation in a small area of the lung, and adrenal adenoma. Brain biopsy sample from the affected temporal area suggested T-cell mediated lymphocytic (paraneoplastic or viral) meningoencephalitis and excluded diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The symptoms worsened, and the patient died in the sixth week of disease. The pathological examination of the presumed adenoma in the adrenal gland, the pancreatic tail and the lung lesions revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, as did the brain and spinal cord lesions. Even at histological examination, the T-cell lymphoma had the misleading appearance of inflammatory condition as did the MRI. Conclusion – Lymphoma can manifest as LETM. In cases of etiologically unclear atypical LETM in patients older than 40 years, a random skin biopsy (with subcutaneous adipose tissue) from the thigh and from the abdomen is strongly recommended as soon as possible. This may detect IVL and provide the possibility of prompt chemotherapy. In case of suspicion of lymphoma, parallel examination of the CSF by flow cytometry is also recommended. If skin biopsy is negative but lymphoma suspicion remains high, biopsy from other sites (bone marrow, lymph nodes or adrenal gland lesion) or from a simultaneously existing cerebral lesion is suggested, to exclude or prove diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, IVL, or a rare T-cell lymphoma.

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2019

Coexistence of cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and dural ectasia in type I neurofibromatosis

YALDIZ Mahizer

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1; also known as Von Recklinghausen’s disease) is a common autosomal dominant disease that occurs in the general population at the rate of 1 in 3000. Many NF-1 patients present with spinal malformations. A 54-year-old female patient was admitted to the Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology with gradually increasing swelling and spots on the body that had been present for a long period of time. Cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and dural ectasia (DE) were also detected. She was diagnosed with NF-1. NF-1 is routinely seen in dermatology practice. Coexistence of NF-1 with vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE rarely occurs. Our case is the second reported instance in the literature of NF-1 with a spinal anomaly in the cervical region, and the first reported instance of the coexistence of NF-1 with cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE.

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 01, 2000

[Perinatal postasphyxial brain damage and its obstetric prevention]

PAPP Zoltán

[The author provides an overview of the definition and aethiopathogenesis of fetal hypoxia and asphyxia, including possible forms of post asphyxial damages of mature fetuses as well as the incidence and neurological consequences of cerebralpalsy. Among from the screening methods of fetal hypoxia the special importance of colour-Doppler and pulse-Doppler technique (flowmetry), cardiotocography (CTG), non-stress test, biophysical profile examinations, amnioscopy and fetal pulsoxymetry are emphasized. In the prevention of fetal asphyxia the significance of preconceptional and prenatal care, the importance of maternal diseases, pathological conditions of the fetus and the umbilical cord, as well as the influence of factors during labour and delivery are also emphasized. The practice of the authors is supported by the recommendation of British obstetricians, when making a fetal scalp pH examination in case of pathological CTG findings, or performing a prophylactic cesarean section if the pH examination is not available. Since the number of postasphyxial damage in mature newborn infants is still high in Hungary, it is concluded, that an increase is required in the rate of cesarean sections when fetal asphyxia is present. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 20, 1996

[Hemodynamic adaptation of fetal brain]


[Doppler color ultrasonography of the middle cerebral and umbilical arteries was performed on 104 fetuses born at term. A total of 254 investigations were carried out. Of the 104 fetuses studied, 52 infants had birth weights appropriate for gestational age (mean 3409.2 g) and 52 infants were small for gestational age (mean 2272.1 g). Cerebral hemodynamic adaptation was observed in growth retarded fetuses due to placenta! insufficiency. ln these cases the elevated umbilical vascular resistance evidenced the placenta! insufficiency. At the same time the decrease of the cerebral vascular velocimetry indexes indicated the improving cerebral blood supply. Only the systolic/diastolic ratio was significantly reduced in growth retarded fetuses when compared with normal controls. ln the umbilical artery the pulsatility index and systolic/diastolic ratio were raised significantly in growth retarded fetuses. The ratio of the cerebral arterial to umbilical cord artery index values proved a better indicator of the difference between growth retarded and normal controls than the index of the cerebral or umbilical artery alone. The ratios of all three index values of the growth retarded fetuses were significantly smaller than those of the normal controls (pulsatility index 1.03 versus 1. 60, resistance index 0.84 versus 1.19 and systolic/diastolic ratio 1.01 versus 2.02). The ratios of the small for date fetuses due to other, nonplacental causes were simi­ lar to the normal controls. The blood circulation disorder evokes hemodynamic adaptation in the feta! brain. The intrauterine growth restriction is a consequence of this disturbed blood supply. The cerebral circulatory adaptation failed in the small for date fetuses non associated with decreased blood supply.]

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 09, 1950

[Histamine content of various nerve elements]


[In addition to the well-defined cholinergic and adrenergic nerves, histaminergic nerves have recently been distinguished. Lewis and Marvin were the first to show that a building material (H-matter) is released in the skin when the back radicals are stimulated. Ungar and Zerling believe that vasodilator nerve fibres would belong to the histaminergic group, because the excitatory effect occurs by histamine release when spinal dorsal roots are stimulated.]