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Clinical Oncology

SEPTEMBER 15, 2016

[Therapy of endometrial cancer - an update]

SIPOS Norbert

[Endometrial cancer is the most frequent gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Recently, there is a signifi cant increase of incidence caused by epidemic obesity. While the etiology of endometrial cancer can be heterogeneous, the effective therapy should be rather personalized. The primary therapy of endometrial cancer is operative. The recommended surgery is total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Management of pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy is supported by the latest international recommendations, except cases of low-risk tumors (stage I/A, grade 1 or 2, endometrioid type, diameter of tumor <2 cm). Method of adjuvant therapy, especially in developed stages, is still controversial. Efficacy of postoperative irradiation, chemotherapy and chemoirradiation is under investigation by several ongoing studies. Recurrent endometrial cancer has bad prognosis, the best solution in this case is chemotherapy. In recent years targeted therapy (especially antiangiogenetic drugs, mTORinhibitors and hormontherapy) gave us some promising results. Around 80% of endometrial cancers can be diagnosed at early stages and cured with efficacy. Unfortunately, there is a group of tumors with bad prognosis, low differentiation, or recurrency, which can be a real challenge for clinicians. In this review we discuss the latest and most promising studies and scientifi c results in connection with treatment of high-risk endometrial cancers.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 20, 2015

[Incisional hernia and diabetes. Could we improve the results?]

MARTIS Gábor, DAMJANOVICH László

[GOALS - Diabetes mellitus is considered as a risk factor concerning surgical interventions as well. Connection between incisional abdominal hernias and diabetes mellitus were investigated in this prospective four years study. The primary aim was to evaluate the proportion of recurrencies, the secondary aim was determining the ratio of surgical complications in the investigated two groups (Group I: non diabetic, group II: diabetic patients). PATIENTS AND METHOD - The results of the incisional and abdominal hernia operations performed between 01. 01. 2011. and 31. 12. 2014. were investigated. Data for study was gained from the consecutively and obligatorily registered database of the authors’ institution. The type of reconstruction, elective or acute character of surgery, primary or recidive operation, the patients’ body mass index (BMI), as well as among complications the seroma and fistula formations, the reoperations and postoperative infections were registered. Patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus were not differentiated. The HgbA1c was investigated separately in elective and acute operations. RESULTS - There were 56 (8.94%) diabetic patients (39 male, 17 women, avr. age 54.3 years) out of all 626 patients operated on incisional and/or abdominals wall hernias. Total recurrency rate was 19.6% during the average 32 months (6-66 months) follow-up period. The recurrency rate in diabetic patients was 50.0% (48.7% in women, 52.9% in men). Non-diabetic patients’ recurrency ratio were only 8.3% (11.2% and 5.4% in men and women, respectively). Median BMI is significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in those of non diabetics (35.4kg/m2 vs 27.75kg/2). Ratio of the elective and acute operations were 69.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The most frequently used operations technique was the direct transversal abdominal wall suture (14.3%) and the direct suture plus synthetic mesh implantation (64.3%). Eleven (19.7%) diabetic patients with incisional hernia were reconstructed with a so-called autologous tension free dermal flap. In 2 (18.2%) out of 11 patients were registered recurrency. Seroma and haematoma formation was occured in four patient (36.4%) and in one (9.1%), respectively after dermal flap reconstructions. Mean recurrency time after surgery in non-diabetic and in diabetic patients was 12.3 months and 9.2 months, respectively. The average HgbA1c level was significantly higher (8.1% in electively operated patients than in those acutly operated ones (9.8%). There were two lethal (0.36%) postoperative complications in this study. CONCLUSION - Considering the recurrency ratio of the incisional hernias and the postoperative complications, diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor compared the data to non-diabetic patients. Seroma and haematoma formations, postoperative complications ratio are significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in those of non-diabetic. Appearance of recurrencies require significantly shorter time in patients with diabetes mellitus The rate of recidive and postoperative complication after the autolog, dermal, traction free abdominal wall reconstructions made by authors was lower, than in abdominal hernias reconstructed in other ways (direct suture, direct suture plus xenograft).]