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Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 01, 2000

[Cancer Screening Recommendations in the United States]

JÓNÁS Eszter

[At the Cancer Institute (NCI) in the summer of 1999, I attended a course on Tumor Prevention and Control, which focused on primary and secondary tumor prevention options. The course had 15 foreign and the same number of American students. All continents except Australia were represented in the international group. While foreign students were (with one exception) doctors, in the case of American participants, in addition to the 20% proportion of doctors, the rest came from nurses, biologists, chemists, sociologists, mathematicians working in the field of prevention. What was said was divided into eight topics. The first was titled Tumor and Statistics. In this module, we are introduced to the basic concepts of biostatistics as well as some health surveys that have been successful in America for decades. In the second part, we get a summary of the biometric methodology. The third topic was Genetics and Tumor Biology. Here we could hear about oncogenes and suppressor genes as well as hereditary tumors. The fourth working group dealt with the prevention and control of the most common and high-mortality tumors. In the fifth part, we heard about diet and chemoprevention. There has been talk of foods that promote the development of certain tumors or that inhibit this process. A separate lecture was given on the role of herbs in the prevention of tumor formation. The sixth topic was entitled Special Populations and the Environment. They pointed out the decisive role of the environment in the development of cancer. The seventh topic dealt with the possibilities of disseminating health protection and lifestyle reform. Not only were we able to learn about the theoretical possibilities of popularization, but we were also able to learn about some successful American programs. The final section provided information on ongoing tumor prevention and control research at NCI.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2021

[Personalised epilepsy treatment]

ALTMANN Anna

[Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disease in childhood. Patients with epilepsy – even with so-called benign epilepsy – need medication for years. During this time, children go through a very big change, not only gaining weight and height, but also changing hormonal and metabolic processes. Maturation processes in different brain areas also take place at different rates depending on age. All of these should be considered when preparing a therapeutic plan. In everyday practice after the diagnosis of epilepsy, the applied drug is most often selected based on the shape and type of seizure. However, a number of other factors need to be considered when designing a therapeutic strategy: 1. efficacy (form of epilepsy, type of seizure), 2. age, gender, 3. pharmacological properties of the drug, 4. adverse drug reaction profile, 5. lifestyle (community), figure (skinny, corpulent, obese), 6. other comorbidities (nutrition, behavioral and learning problems, circulatory disorders, kidney or liver disease), 7. expected interactions with other drugs already used, 8. genetics, 9. other aspects (drug registration and prescription rules). The purpose of this article is to help to decide which antiepileptic drugs are expected to have the least side effects in a particular child with different comorbidities and which medications should be avoided if possible.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JUNE 07, 2021

[Potential impact of human genetic variations in COVID-19 infection ]

VÁRNAI Réka, SZENTPÉTERI L. József, SIPEKY Csilla

[The aim of COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (HGI) research collaboration is to identify human genetic variation that influences responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its subsequent disease, COVID-19. In the COVID-19 HGI consortium more than 1000 scientists share their own data. The authors of this study participate in the Hungarian communication of the published results at the request of COVID-19 HGI.]

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 28, 2020

[The use of vitamins and trace elements in oncology]

RÉPÁSI Eszter

[The effects of diet on development cancer and tumor control has been studied for along time, because diet has a key role in treatment of cancer. A multidisciplinary team is needed for proper use of vitamins and trace elements in cancer patients. This multidisciplinary team (oncologist, dietitian, laboratory assistant) can provide the professional supervision from the medical examination to the practical implementation, which can control the proper intake of these nutrients and the individual conditions. Dietetian is helped by appropriate health assessment (blood testing, gut microbiome and nutrigenetics) and targeting to determine the accurate amount and methods (food or dietary supplements) of vitamins and trace elements. Dietitans can help the patients to analyze the nutrients intake by food, determine the needs of the nutrients, and implement the results in practice.]

Hypertension and nephrology

NOVEMBER 04, 2020

[The role of stress management in the care of hypertension and the treatment of cardiovascular disease]

SOMOGYI Éva, KISS Zoltán, STAUDER Adrienne

[The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the relationship between stress and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, furthermore to introduce an evidence based stress management intervention available in Hungary. The correlation between cardiovascular disease and psychosocial factors (including concomitant mental disorders as well as personality traits or the effect of social environment) has been established in numerous studies aimed at investigating pathogenesis or various clinical endpoints. The 2016 Guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology include the assessment and the management of psychosocial problems with behavioral medicine interventions as a I.A level recommendation. The implementation of these guidelines in everyday clinical practice is crucial to decrease cardiovascular risk. This involves the training of health care professionals, the facilitation of multidisciplinary collaboration and the integration of behavioral intervention into everyday care. The Williams Life Skills (WLS) program is an evidence based behavioral medicine intervention aiming to improve stress management and communication skills which implemented internationally and also available all over Hungary. It involves the learning of simple coping strategies that facilitate the successful management of every day psychosocial stress situations and the self-conscious reduction of bodily and psychological tensions. In cardiovascular disease, this improves quality of life and survival. The WLS program is especially recommended for healthcare workers to decrease the negative health consequences of their high stress load and to prevent burnout. Stress may affect both doctors and patients during their interactions. Bálint groups have a positive impact on the physician-patient collaboration and help to reduce burnout by improving the understanding of the diseases from a more complex approach.]

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2019

[The role of epigenetic regulations in early childhood diseases]

TORY Vera

[With the acceptance of “The developmental origins of health and disease” concept in the 1990s, it became clear that epigenetic inheritance, which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence has important role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Epigenetic regulation serves the adaptation to the changing environment and maintains the reproductive fitness even on the drawback of increased risk of diseases in later life. The role of epigenetic mechanisms in chronic non-communicable diseases has been well established. Recent studies have revealed that epigenetic changes have also causal role in certain pediatric diseases. The review evaluates the recent epigenetic findings in the pathomechanism of common pediatric diseases. The wide range and long-lasting duration of epigenetic regulations give importance to the subject. Methods are already available to evaluate a part of the epigenetic changes in the clinical practice, presently aiming primarily the estimation of the disease risk or definition of diagnosis. Furthermore, there are already available limited means to influence the epigenetic regulation. ]