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Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 20, 2019

[Gynecological correlations of eating disorders]

GALIGER-DOBOS Kitty, TÚRY Ferenc

[In recent decades, the incidence of eating disorders (its two major forms are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) has increased, their course has been delayed, and their complications are becoming more frequent and severe. Eating disorders cannot only damage physical and mental health but also affect reproductive health, future mothers and their children. Understanding the biological and psychosocial factors that explain the gynecological conditions related to eating disorders is essential regarding fertility and pregnancy. The present review summarizes data published from 2000 about the gynecological effects of eating disorders. In daily practice, the multidisciplinary collaboration is particularly important to pro­vide women with eating disorders with comprehensive care. The appropriate information of women who plan to have children is essential in order to increase the likelihood of conception and reduce the risk of miscarriage. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2019

[Sleep habits among preschool- and schoolchildren]

FUSZ Katalin, RITECZ Bernadett, BALOGH Brigitta, TAKÁCS Krisztina, SOMLAI Eszter, RAPOSA L. Bence, OLÁH András

[Objective - Our aim is to evaluate sleep habits, sleep quality and influencing factors among preschool- and schoolchildren. Method - Two questionnaires were recorded. Questionnaire 1 dealt with sleeping habits, breastfeeding and health behavior of preschool children and infant, and it contained the abbreviated version of the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Questionnaire 2 dealt with health behavior and the application of sleep hygiene rules, as well as it contained the Athens Insomnia Scale. Subjects - We assessed a total of 1063 questionnaires: 516 kindergarten children participated in our online survey across the country; 547 primary and secondary school students participated in the 2nd questionnaire survey in Szolnok. Results - Parents’ observation shows that the average nighttime sleeping time of kindergarten children is 10 hours 20 minutes on weekdays and 10 hours 36 minutes on weekends. The most popular sleeping habits in kindergarten age: teal reading (65.1%) and co-sleeping (42.8%). Parents of infants used breastfeeding (50.4%) and rocking (43.2%) most frequently before sleep. Co-sleeping has a positive influence on the length of lactation. Among the preschool sleeping habits we have proved a number of positive effects of teal reading, while watching television have negative effects. The sleep quality of school-age children according to the Athens Insomnia Scale is 6.11 points (SD: 4.11), 19% of the children are insomniac. Their sleep time is 7 hours 31 minutes on weekdays and 9 hours 30 minutes on weekends. The usage of good health behavior and sleep hygiene rules positively influence sleep quality and sleep duration. Conclusions - With our results, we would like to draw the attention of children and parents to the importance of sleeping and using sleep hygiene rules.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

OCTOBER 30, 2018

[Influencing Factors of Parenting Sense of Competence - Focusing on Sense of Coherence]

CSIGÓ Luca, KARÁCSONY Ilona Hajnalka

[The aim of the study: Parenting sense of competence (PSOC) has major impact on children’s development. The aim of this study was to examine the influencing factors of the parenting sense of competence from the aspect of a Health Visitor, especially focusing on sense of coherence (SOC). Material and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional, online study was carried out in 2017. A non-random sampling was applied with 254 mothers, who cared healthy, 0-6-year-old children. A self-edited survey was used and we examined SOC by its standard scale (SOC-13). For the data analysis Chi2 probability was used (p<0,05). Results: The mean age of the mothers was 33 years, 47,8% had 2 children and almost 60%. were higher educated. The mean point of SOC was 58,49. Age and sense of coherence had major impact on PSOC (p<0,05). There was not correlation between the residence, the education level, the marital status and PSOC (p>0,05). However the judgement of the Heath Visitors was excellent, internet was the main source of information about childcare. At the same time, human resources were mostly used in practise. Conclusion: The sociodemographic factors had lower impact on PSOC but it had a strong rela­tion­ship with SOC. In case of a risk groups Health Visitor could be a resource, against physical and psychosocial stressors, and she also could help to develop the parenting sense of competence. The role of the professionals should be enhanced in the parents’ source of knowledge related to their children.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 20, 2019

[Is it necessary? - Opinions and experiences about a first aid programme for children - pilot study]

BÁNFAI Bálint, PANDUR Attila, SCHISZLER Bence, RADNAI Balázs, BÁNFAI-CSONKA Henrietta, BETLEHEM József

[INTRODUCTION - Starting first aid education in early childhood can be an effective method of knowledge transfer. AIM - Our aim was to examine first aid education related opinions of kindergarten- and primary school children, educators, and parents. MATERIALS AND METHODS - 871 people (children, educators, parents) were involved in our study. Opinions were measured with self-administered questionnaires, containing mainly open questions. RESULTS - General opinion of parents and educators on first aid education in childhood were mainly positive, but they also gave negative ones. The majority of participants had a positive opinion about our completed program. Based on the opinions of parents and educators first aid education is recommended by health care professionals. Opinions were independent from gender, age, lenght of time of working with children in all cases (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS - General opinion of parents and educators was varied, but it was generally positive concerning our program. Based on this results opinions can be changed with concrete activities. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2019

[Epidemiology, cost and economic impact of cerebral palsy in Hungary]

FEJES Melinda, VARGA Beatrix, HOLLÓDY Katalin

[Objective - The purpose of our communication was to determine the total cost of cerebral paretic patients in Hungary between 0 and 18 years and to assess their impact on the national budget. Methods - Based on the data of Borsod county we calculated the CP characteristics. The cost of CP was determined by routine care of individuals. Lost Parental Income and Tax were calculated on the basis of average earnings. The ratio of GDP, Health and Social Budget and Health Budget to CP is based on CP annual average cost and frequency. We have developed a repeatable computational model. Results - Of the risk groups, premature birth (30.97%), low birth weight (29.64%), perinatal asphyxia (19.47%) were the most common. Source is unknown of 37.61% of the cases. CP prevalence was 2.1‰. The two-sided (59.7%) and the one-sided (19.0%) spastic pareses dominated. The most serious form is the two-sided spastic paresis (42.5% GMFCS 3-5 degrees). Epilepsy was 22.0%, incontinence was 27%, mental involvement was 46%. Care for one child up to 18 years of age costs an average of 73 million HUF (€ 251,724). The lost family income was 27.36 million HUF (€ 94,345), and lost tax and health care contributions were 14.46 million HUF (€ 49,862). Additionally, 0.525% of the GDP, 0.88% of the full health and social budget and 1.83% of direct medical costs were spent for CP families. Conclusion - The cost of CP disease is significant. Costs can be reduced by improving primary prevention. From the perspective of the family and government, it is better to care for families so they can take care of their disabled children.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2018

[Feeding and eating in infancy and early childhood part III. - Development of self-feeding skills in the large-sample of the “For Healthy Offspring” project ]

NÉMETH Tünde, VÁRADY Erzsébet, DANIS Ildikó, SCHEURING Noémi, SZABÓ László

[Feeding and eating in infancy and early childhood part III. - Development of self-feeding skills in the large-sample of the “For Healthy Offspring” project INTRODUCTION - After introducing adequate complementary food to the diet of breastfed/formula-fed babies, the frequency and amount of semisolid/solid food is increasing, the breastmilk/formula intake is decreasing and finally the weaning process is completed. During this process the developing feeding skills of the infant enables them to self-feed. The self-feeding infant and toddler should participate in family meals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - In the Healthy Offspring project self reported questionnaires were received from 1133 parents of 0-3 year old children. Issues concerning the development of self-feeding skills were analyzed. RESULTS - With advancing age the proportion of infants/toddlers, reported to be able to (partially) self-feed, has increased. The age, at which the majority of toddlers (83.1%) were reported to self-feed, was at 13-15 months. By the age over 2 years 57.2% of the toddlers were fully self-feeding, 39.3% were self-feeding with some assistance, and 3.5% were still completely fed by their mother/caregiver. While self-feeding became more prevalent, the proportion of toddlers with feeding problems and insufficient weight gain has increased. With more prevalent complementary feeding more parents assessed their feeding style rather scheduled than on demand. In the whole sample the proportion of infants/toddlers, who ate with the family, was 43.8%. CONCLUSIONS - In our sample, as previously described in the scientific literature, the developmental readiness to self-feed has developed in the majority of infants by the age of 13-15 months. During progres­sion of weaning an increasing proportion of parents thought, that feeding was rather scheduled than on demand. This finding points at the importance of educating parents about the importance of responsive feeding during and after weaning. For self-feeding toddlers, responsive feeding means, that the mother/caregiver offers a choice of healthy and adequate amount of food, at a proper place, at proper times, responds to the hunger and satiety cues of the child and the toddler decides, whether to eat, what and how much to eat.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

AUGUST 30, 2018

[Feeding and eating in infancy and early childhood part II. - Breastfeeding, complementary feeding and weaning in the Large-sample of the “For Healthy Offspring” project]

NÉMETH Tünde, VÁRADY Erzsébet, DANIS Ildikó, SCHEURING Noémi, SZABÓ László

[INTRODUCTION - Complementary feed-ing is the transitional period from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods, while breastfeeding is continued. It should be started, when breastmilk itself no longer meets the infant’s nutritional requirements, ideally at the age of around 6 months. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - In the Healthy Offspring project self reported questionnaires were received from 1133 parents of 0-3 year old children. Comple­mentary feeding practices and issues of weaning were analyzed. RESULTS - In our sample complementary feeding was started at the age of 5.5±1.8 months. 6% of infants younger than 4 months and about two third of infants at the age between 4 and 6 months were started on complementary feeding. 32% of the 7-12 month old infants were continued on breastfeeding. The proportion of breastfed infants and young children in the 12-24 and 25-36 month age group was 24% and 5.5% respectively. The daily feeding frequency of breastfed infants was 6.7±1.6. The infants and young children, who were breastfed along with complementary feeding were feeding 5.6±1.5 times/day. After completed weaning the range of feeding frequency was limited to 4.9±0.9 occasions/day. 60.4% of mothers regarded their feeding style on demand, while 39.6% on set schedule. 16% of mothers reported that their child had feeding difficulties. CONCLUSIONS - Complementary feeding indicators should be part of infant feeding data collection, such as time of introduction of complementary food, feeding frequency, food consistency, energy density of food and safe preparation. Responsive feeding is part of responsive parenting and should be promoted, along with continuing breastfeeding at least till one year of age, and for as long as mother and infant wish to continue. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JUNE 20, 2018

[Applying musical tools in healing children]

KOLLÁR János

[The aim of the study is drawing the attention to the possibilities of applying musical tools in healing children. After doing research in main medical databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline) some research works were discovered and harmonized in which the researchers give proof of the effectiveness of music therapies implemented in therapeutic circumstances and by proper experts on medical fields. The study focuses on the following topics: applying music for reducing stress caused by medical interventions and hospitalization, treating speech disturbances, improving communication and social abilities of autistic children, improving capabilities of people suffering from visual and hearing impairment, providing help during anaesthesia, stimulating different parts of the brain in children suffering from PDOC (Prolonged Disorder of Consciousness), improving capabilities of children living with disabilities and helping creating harmonic relationship between children, their parents and the healing staff. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

DECEMBER 15, 2017

[Feeding and eating in infancy and early childhood part I. - data on breastfeeding in the large-sample “For Healthy Offspring” project]

NÉMETH Tünde, VÁRADY Erzsébet, DANIS Ildikó, SCHEURING Noémi, SZABÓ László

[INTRODUCTION - Breastfeeding is the ideal and natural source of nutrition for infants, is associated with a reduced risk of many diseases in infants and mothers. It has a positive impact on the mother-infant relationship and also has considerable economic and environmental benefits. Subjects and methods - In the “For Healthy Offspring” Project parents of 1164, 0-3-year-old children completed a ques-tionnaire about breastfeeding and their feeding routine. The sample is not representative of the general population, but the sociodemographic and housing variables indicate an adequate spectrum. RESULTS - Breastfeeding was perceived by 60% of mothers enjoyable, while 20% of them had a negative experience with it. More than 50% of mothers had some breastfeeding difficulties, but it did not have a significant correlation with the negative perception of breastfeeding. The most common problem was the perception of inadequate milk supply. Among the studied variables maternal smoking, lower maternal education and the lack of antenatal breastfeeding education had the strongest correlation with the duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS - Adequate antenatal education on breastfeeding, proactive support of women and promptly attending their breastfeeding difficulties increases the duration of exclusive and any breastfeed-ing, helps mothers to reach their breastfeed-ing goals and to perceive breastfeeding enjoyable.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

AUGUST 30, 2017

[Milestone in the Development of the Primary Health Care]

GUTÁSI Éva, TÓTH Baloghné Edit, LÁZÁR Marsiné Erika

[All health care systems in Europe face similar challenges. In Hungary the most important one is the emigration of health system workers and the increasing demand for care in ageing population. Key areas of the development of primary health care are prevention, public health and health promotion. In The Primary Care Development Model Program the single-handed general practices comprised of one GP, one nurse and one health visitor who were teamed up and formed the GP’s cluster employing various other health professionals (including community nurses). In the last 4 years the new primary care system became a reality for 40,000 inhabitants of four disadvantaged micro-regions of Hungary. The health status of more than 20.000 adults and 8000 children were assessed between 2013 and 2017 in the Modell Programme that uncovered a number of hidden diseases.]