Lege Artis Medicinae

[Ways and tools of the organism's defence in atherosclerosis - The mysterious HDL particle]

JAKAB Lajos

JANUARY 27, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(01)

[Every type of injury elicits an immediate defending, preventing response in the living organism, which involves the whole organism’s participation. In case of a single effect, the events and symptoms together can be designated as “acute phase reaction syndrome”. The pathogenic constituents' effects on the arterial wall are, however, permanent, though varying in composition and intensity. The protecting reaction serving the prevention of the continuously arising vessel wall lesion is inflammation itself. Beginning of the inflammatory phenomenon carries within itself the criteria of the acute tissue response but it takes on involuntarily chronic features as a consequence of the chronic etiology. In the arterial wall ongoing vasculitis affects all the three layers of the vessels. The HDL particle is involved in triggering and progression of vasculitis. It transports cholesterol from the tissues to the liver, defends the integrity and physiological functions of the endothelium, exerts antioxidant effects, and it has the capacity to inhibit secretion and effects of cytokines, cell migration and the thrombotic process. These are all together serving as controllers of the ongoing vasculitis in the artery wall. Composition of the HDL particle is exceptionally complex. Almost half of the identifiable - at least 48 - components could be considered as acute phase reactants, and almost as many are related to cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Participation of proteinase inhibitors and complement system components and regulators is very important for its function. Some constituents have a glycosaminoglycan binding capacity. The physiological roles of some acute phase reactants are not completely identified as today. This is especially valid concerning the characteristics of the HDL particle as an entity. Nevertheless, on the basis of present study data, it is ascertainable that HDL is an acute phase reactant; it is an inherent part of the natural, innate immune system of the organism. However, it is only one single component of the large group of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms and factors.]

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[INTRODUCTION - Some of the recent researches based on analyses of autobiographies pointed out, that the quality and the quantity of our social relations are in connection with our life longevity, and the frequency of words referring social roles and integration gives a respective measurement possibility of it. Conception of the term “social words” had been introduced. The influence of the degree of social support to the recovery from alcohol addiction is also a well-known phenomenon. Based on the above we supposed that examining their autobiography vocabularies we find special differences which can show the distinction between the social support of the relapsed and recovering addicted persons. We planned to prove the being of these special differences via revealing bias of the frequency and pattern of social word usage. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Two separate groups were created for purpose of the examination. The first consisted of relapsed alcohol dependent persons, who were treated in hospital (department of addiction psychiatry) diagnosed alcohol-dependent (F 10.2) (and nothing else) at least twice within a year (N=30). We chose earlier treated (because of alcohol-dependency, and nothing else mental disease) persons who had been being abstinent for at least 2 years into the second group (N=20). Beside the earlier diagnosis we used the parts of the ASI test to sreen any other mental diseases. We created similar groups with regards to gender, age and qualification. We collected autobiographies from the persons, and made two common documents of them. Afterwards we compared these documents by the Atlas.ti 5.0 (trial free version) content analysing software. We defined the frequency of the found social words in the rate of these words and the sum of the words in the whole text. We found the most prominent difference between the frequency of social words referring to the family and relatives, opposite the words dealing with friendship. RESULTS - In the latter case we could not detect any difference between the two groups. We got results confirming our hypothesis in the frequency of such words as “help”, “love”, “give” and “get”. We experienced in connection with the pattern that the words referring to social organisations, for example “team”, “community”, “company”, “club”, “meeting”, “collective” and the word “guest” practically did not appear (R<0.001) in the texts of relapsed persons, while they could be detected in the case of the recovering group (R=0.023). We did khisquare test to compare the frequency in the mentioned categories and we experienced significant differences between the social word usage of the two groups. CONCLUSION - Our results confirmed that the recovery from alcohol addiction was related to the quality and quantity of person's social relations, what we can get relevant information from the frequency of social words in the autobiographies about, so the high frequency of the social words can be considered as a good predictor of recovery.]

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