Lege Artis Medicinae

[The significance of statin pleiotropy]

KOLOSSVÁRY Endre

NOVEMBER 20, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(11)

[Application of statins in the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis is of great importance. Attenuation of cardiovascular risk by statin therapy is primarily related to a decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Scientific data published in the past few years highlight the importance of the beneficial effects of statins that are not related to cholesterol-lowering. These effects are known as pleiotropic effects. This review aims to present the current view of statins’ pleiotropic effects.]

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LAKATOS Péter László, HORVÁTH Henrik Csaba, ZUBEK László, PÁK Gábor, NÉMETH Artúr, RÁCZ István, PÁK Péter, FUSZEK Péter, NAGYPÁL Anna, GEMELA Orsolya, PAPP János

[INTRODUCTION - Until recently, only the proximal small bowel was accessible for diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopy. A new method, doubleballoon enteroscopy (DBE), provides high-resolution imaging and enables both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Our aim was to report our experiences with the Fujinon EN-450 T5 therapeutic double-balloon endoscope and compare our findings with the results of earlier capsule endoscopy where this was available. METHODS - Between August 2005 and July 2009, 150 DBE procedures were conducted in 139 consecutive patients (M/F: 67/72, age: 51.1±18.6 years) who presented at our tertiary referral hospital. The examination was performed via the oral route in 112 patients, via the anal route in 16 patients, and via both routes in 11 patients. DBE was indicated due to obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in most cases (83), due to diagnosis or complication of IBD in 29 cases and due to polyposis syndrome or suspected neoplasia in 25 patients. In one patient we performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All procedures were performed using i.v. anaesthesia at our outpatient clinic. After the procedure, the patients were monitored in a recovery room for at least four hours. The results of previous capsule endoscopy were available in 27 patients. RESULTS - Small-bowel abnormalities ? mostly angiodysplasias, minor erosions or ulcers ? were detected in 50 (60.2%) of the patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Malignancy was found in 7,2% (6/83) of the patients who were examined because of bleeding (three gastrointestinal stoma tumour, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma, one previously undetected melanoma metastasis and one pancreatic adenomacarcinoma that involved the duodenum) Intervention was performed in 24 patients. IBD was diagnosed in five (38.5%) of the 13 patients in whom the disease was suspected. In patients with known Crohn-disease, DBE was indicated on the basis of the extent, behaviour and activity of the disease. Polypectomy was performed in eight patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome, whereas small-bowel adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in four patients. The concordance between the findings of capsule endoscopy and DBE was 51.8% (14/27), and in one patient DBE revealed malignancy that has not been detected by endoscopy. The average insertion length during the procedure was approximately 213 cm (range 50-480 cm, SD 111). CONCLUSIONS - On the basis of our results, DBE is a safe and useful method for assessing and treating small bowel disease, even if capsule endoscopy is contraindicated due to suspected strictures.]

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