Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Languages of Apologizing]

SZONDY Máté

NOVEMBER 20, 2011

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2011;21(11)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[50 years of tolperisone in clinical practice]

BÁLINT Géza

[Tolperisone is a centrally acting muscle relaxant that has both antispasticity and antispasmodic properties, but lacks the sedative effect of other muscle relaxants. In the past 50 years, millions of patients with spasticity due to neurological diseases and painful reflex muscle spasm have been treated with this drug. Although few welldesigned, double blind, controlled clinical trials have been published, the efficacy of tolperisone in the treatment of both spasticity and painful reflex muscle spasm is convincing. The tolerability and safety of the drug are well documented. In this respect, one of its greatest advantages is that it has no sedative effect, does not lengthen reaction time, and does not interfere with driving. Further, well-designed controlled trials are clearly required for widening the use of this excellent drug.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Reality and Mystery – The Art of El Greco]

NAGY Zsuzsanna

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Ear Problem of Francis II and the British Empire ]

GERLINGER Imre

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Misconceptions and the Truth – On Hospice]

HEGEDÛS Katalin

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Family Tree of Franz Liszt ]

CZEIZEL Endre

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[Introduction: Inspecting the difficulties of Hungarian nurses during the treatment of patients from different cultures. Materials and methods: Anonymous online questionnaire for the subjective examination of nursing difficulties. Results: The research model consists of 122 responder. Specific questions were answered by applicable 111 responders only. It was discovered that communication is a significant difficulty for 56.76% of the respondents (63 people). Furthermore the patients from different cultures show significant distrust towards the nursing staff. Conclusion: The numbers of lessons in foreign languages need to be increased for Hungarian nurses, researches and presentations are needed in the area of multicultural patient care, communicational instructions and further trainings are required for nurses working in practice.]

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[The validation of a disease specific quality of life instrument in patients with psoriatic arthritis]

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[Measuring quality of life (QoL) has a growing importance in the field of health technology assessment. It is especially true for chronic diseases, such as psoriatic arthritis, which has significant impact on patients’ quality of life through the intensity of symptoms and the duration of the disease. The quality of life measurement can only be reliable and valid if an appropriate instrument is used. One of the most critical elements of the validity of quality of life intruments is the method used for adapting the questionnaire to foreign languages. Authors present their results and experience in the Hungarian adaptation of the Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PSAQoL) questionnaire.]

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[The value of the SCOFF questionnaire in the screening of eating disorders]

DUKAY-SZABÓ Szilvia, VARGA Márta, TÚRY Ferenc

[Having become an increasingly relevant health issue from the second half of the 20th century, eating disorders have presented the need for screening, carried out in the simplest possible way, by a short questionnaire. Morgan and his colleagues identified this necessity and in 1999 created the SCOFF test to screen eating disorders with five yes or no questions. The questionnaire promptly became popular due to its briefness and easy adaptability. It was translated into several languages, its validity was measured on numerous populations. According to the results SCOFF is suitable for primary screening of eating disorders with a non-diagnostic purpose, taken two “yes” answers out of five as the critical margin, specified by the authors. Our objective was to give a review of the history of the SCOFF questionnaire.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[CONSCIOUSNESS AND ALTERED CONSCIOUSNESS]

SZIRMAI Imre, KAMONDI Anita

[The notion of consciousness in the English scientific literature denotes a global ability to consciously perform elementary and intellectual tasks, to reason, plan, judge and retrieve information as well as the awareness of these functions belonging to the self, that is, being self-aware. consciouness can also be defined as continuous awareness of the external and internal environment, of the past and the present. The meaning of consciouness is different in various languages, but it invariably includes, the conscious person is capable to learn, retrieve and use information. Disturbance or loss of consciouness in the Hungarian medical language indicates decreased alertness or arousability rather than the impairment of the complex mental ability. Awareness denotes the spiritual process of perception and analysis of stimuli from the inner and external world. Alertness is a prerequisite of awareness. Clinical observations suggest that the lesions of specific structures of the brain may lead to specific malfunction of consciouness, therefore, consciouness must be the product of neural activity. “Higher functions” of human mental ability have been ascribed to the prefrontal and parietal association cortices. The paleocerebrum, limbic system and their connections have been considered to be the center of emotions, feelings, attention, motivation and autonomic functions. Recent evidence indicates that these phylogenetically ancient structures play an important role in the processes of acquiring, storing and retrieving information. The hippocampus has a key role in regulating memory, learning, emotion and motivation. Impaired consciouness in the neurological practice is classified based on tests for conscious behavior and by analyzing the following responses: 1. elementary reactions to sensory stimuli - these are impaired in hypnoid unconsciousness, 2. intellectual reactions to cognitive stimuli - these indicate the impairment of cognitive contents in nonhypnoid unconsciousness. Obviously, disturbance of elementary reactions related to alertness and disturbance of intellectual performance overlap. In conditions with reduced ability to react to or to perceive external stimuli the cognitive disturbance of consciouness cannot fully be explored.]