Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Rome ]


MARCH 20, 2017

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2017;27(03)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[County level mortality data of urogenital system in Hungary between 2010-2014]

KISS István, PAKSY András

[According to The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th Revision, ICD 10; XIV), urogenital diseases resulted in an average 910 yearly deaths in Hungary from 2010 through 2014, less than 1% of the cumulative mortality rate. Out of all urogenital conditions, kidney and bladder diseases were the leading cause of death, accounting for nearly 85 percent of all deaths in the examined period. It should be noted that mortality due to urogenital cancers, renovascular hypertonia, diabetic nephropathy, congenital malformations and pathologies related to childbirth and pregnancy are excluded from consideration in the present review. As the Hungarian Central Statistical Office does not disclose the causes of death by age and gender at its county-level data, this paper reports gender-specific mortality rates. Due to the fact that the county-level mortality rate of urogenital diseases is low and the yearly standard deviation is high, the five-year overall mortality rate of 2010-2014 is presented. Hungarian counties differ greatly in terms of mortality from urogenital diseases. The number of deaths per 100 000 population ranges between 6.74 in Békés county and 16.38 in Fejér county. Counties within the same region may exhibit substantially different mortality rates. An overall 7.01 deaths per 100 000 population was reported in Győr-Moson-Sopron county, whereas among residents of the neighbouring Vas county the rate was reported as 14.73 per 100 000 population. The observed variations prevail even when standardised mortality rates are compared and thus the differences in the counties’ age distributions are accounted for. Regional differences become more apparent when only the deaths caused by kidney diseases are analysed out of all urogenital pathologies. In this case, two- or threefold differences are observed between the respective Hungarian counties. Major disparities are still present between counties within the same region. For example, the number of deaths per 100.000 population is 3.74 in Hajdú-Bihar county, and 8.04 in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, respectively. The diagnosis frequency of kidney diseases has a strong positive correlation with case fatality, but it may not fully account for all regional variations in mortality rates. Regional characteristics of dialytic care and the accessibility of dialytic facilities is not related to patient mortality. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[End-of-Life Decision Situations Physician Assisted Suicide: Arguments in Legal Language – For and Against ]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Purple urine bag syndrome]

VANDRUS Boglárka, KALABAY László, HARGITTAY Csenge, MÁRKUS Bernadett, TAMÁS Ferenc, TORZSA Péter

[Purple discoloration of an urinary catheter bag is rare and might be alarming to both patients and physicians. Purple urine bag syndrome is associated with urinary tract infections occurring in catheterized patients, generally elderly females. The urine is usually alkaline. Usually Gram-negative bacteria are detected, and tryptophan metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis. We present a case of this rare and interesting phenomenon and discuss the underlying pathogenesis. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Madness and Hatred, or Why is Edgardo the Exiled in the Family Crypt? ]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Based on recent evidences, for what kind of diseases are the Hungarian thermal waters beneficial?]


[Hungary has extremely favorable geothermal facilities, resulting in a leadership role in the usage of thermal water for medical purposes and for publishing medical studies. In the recent decades, a total of 40 balneological subject studies were published in English language journals with impact factors, among these 25 original articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders, as well as inflammatory and metabolic parameters, dermatological and gynecological diseases; besides these, five experimental works and ten reviews, editorial letters, and other issues. In addition, 20 papers have been published in Hungarian medical journals on the topic of musculoskeletal disorders, including six double-blind clinical studies and six single-blind studies. Based on the published domestic and foreign publications, as other studies have not refuted, Hungarian mineral waters, irrespective of mineral content and concentration of the water, have pain killing effect at patients suffering from degenerative musculoskeletal disorders, chronic low back pain and sometimes improve the quality of life of the patients. Based on small number of data the sulfur and salt bath may be beneficial for dermatologic and gynecologic disorders, while carbon dioxide bath, dry carbonic snow, and mofetta may be beneficial in cardiac and vascular rehabilitation; radon bath and radon cave affect the endocrine system; however, to prove it, a study of a large number of patients are required. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to a jugular foramen schwannoma


Introduction – Although the involvement of the hypoglossal nerve together with other cranial nerves is common in several pathological conditions of the brain, particularly the brainstem, isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare condition and a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation – The presented patient arrived to the hospital with a history of slurred speech and an uncomfortable sensation on his tongue. Neurological examination showed left-sided hemiatrophy of the tongue with fasciculations and deviation towards the left side during protrusion. Based on the clinical and MRI findings, a diagnosis of hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was made. Discussion – Hypoglossal nerve palsy may arise from multiple causes such as trauma, infections, neoplasms, and endocrine, autoimmune and vascular pathologies. In our case, the isolated involvement of the hypoglossal nerve was at the skull base segment, where the damage to the hypoglossal nerve may occur mostly due to metastasis, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, nerve sheath tumors and glomus tumors. Conclusion – Because of the complexity of the region’s anatomy, the patient diagnosed with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was referred for gamma knife radiosurgery.

Clinical Neuroscience

Investigation of risk factors, topographic location and stroke mechanisms of unilateral isolated and posterior cerebral ARTERY thalamic infarcts

GÖKCAL Elif, SENGUL Yildizhan, USLU Ilgen Ferda

Aim - In this study, we aimed to examine the risk factors, topographic features and stroke mechanisms of acute ischemic unilateral infarcts of thalamus. Methods - Patient with isolated thalamic infarct and those with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarction who were admitted to our hospital between January 2014 and January 2017 with acute unilateral thalamic infarction (TI) were included in this study (isolated thalamic infarction/ isolated TI; thalamic and posterior cerebral artery infarction/PCA+TI). Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors of the patients were determined. Thalamic infarct areas were recorded topographically as anterior, posteromedial, ventrolateral, posterolateral, more than one area, and variant areas. Stroke mechanism was determined according to the criteria of „Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment” (TOAST). Patients with isolated TI and PCA TI were compared according to risk factors, stroke mechanism and infarct topography. Results - Forty-three patients with a mean age of 63.3 ± 14.5 years were included in the study. Twenty-eight patients (60.1%) were found to have isolated TI and the remaining 15 patients (34.9%) had PCA+TI. 32.1% of patients with isolated TI had sensory symptoms on presentation, and 60% of patients with PCA-TI had sensorimotor symptoms. The mean age, the mean score on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the mean frequency of atrial fibrillation were higher in PCA+TI patients than in isolated-TI patients (p: 0.04, p: 0.004, p: 0.02 respectively). 32.6% of the patients had ventrolateral, 30.2% had posteromedial involvement. Ventrolateral topography was seen in 46.7% of the PCA+TI patients, while posteromedial topography was seen in 39.3% of the isolated-TI patients. 53.6% of the isolated-TI had small vessel disease etiology, while 40% of the PCA+TI had cardioembolic etiology, and the other 40% had large artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion - Our study showed that the most ommon stroke mechanism in patients with thalamic infarction is the small vessel disease. Isolated TI and PCA+TI patients differ in terms of etiologic mechanism and infarct topography. Variant territorial involvement and multiple area involvements can be quite common in thalamic infarcts.

Clinical Neuroscience

The yield of electroencephalography in syncope

NALBANTOGLU Mecbure, TAN Ozturk Ozlem

Introduction - Syncope is defined as a brief transient loss of consciousness due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Although the diagnosis of syncope is based on a thorough history and examination, electroencaphalography (EEG) is also an important investigational tool in the differential diagnosis in this group of patients. In this study we aimed to identify the diagnostic value of EEG in patients with syncope. Methods - We retrospectively examined EEG recordings of 288 patients with the diagnosis of syncope referred to the Cankiri State Hospital EEG laboratory, from January 2014 to January 2016. The EEG findings were classified into 6 groups as normal, epileptiform discharges (spike and sharp waves), generalized background slowing, focal slowing, hemispherical asymmetries, and low amplitude EEG tracing. The EEGs were separated according to gender and age. Results - Total of 288 patients were included in this study, 148 were females (51.4%) and 140 (48.6%) were males. Among all the EEG reports, 203 (70.5%) were normal, 8 of them (2.8%) showed generalized background slowing and 7 (2.4%) demonstrated focal slow waves. Epileptiform discharges occured among 13 patients (4.5%). Hemispherical asymmetries were detected in 10 patients (3.5%) and low amplitude EEG tracing in 47 patients (16.3%). There was no significant difference between age groups in EEG findings (p=0.3). Also no significant difference was detected in EEG results by gender (p=0.2). Discussion - Although the diagnosis of syncope, epilepsy and non-epileptic seizures is clinical diagnosis, EEG still remains additional method