Lege Artis Medicinae

[The history of acute stroke care in Hungary ]


NOVEMBER 30, 2021

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2021;31(11)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33616/lam.31.036


[Stroke is one of the most frequent causes of death and the most important cause of permanent disability worldwide and also in Hungary. The Hungarian medical literature has mentioned this disease and has been giving recommendations for its treatment since 1690. Initially folk medicines, herbal preparations and phlebotomy were used as standard therapy. Later, cooling the head joined these methods. Pharmacy preparations emerged at the middle of the 19th century. From the middle of the 20th century, products of the pharmaceutical industry like blood flow enhancers and neuroprotective drugs were in the frontline of the acute care. Anti­hy­per­ten­sive, antithrombotic and lipid-lowering medications became part of stro­ke prevention. Imaging techniques – mainly computer tomography of the brain and ultrasound examination of the cervical large arteries – have radically changed the diagnostics of cerebrovascular diseases from the middle of the 1980s. Since the 1990s, diagnostic and therapeutic decisions are based on reliable evidence from good quality clinical trials. Since the beginning of the 21st century, reperfusion treatments (intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy) re­present the most effective emergency care. The current direction is the extension of the therapeutic time-window of reperfusion treatments based on sophisticated neruoimaging. This review provides a brief summary of the development of stroke care in the last three and a half centuries as reflected in the Hungarian medical literature. ]


  1. Semmelweis Egyetem, Neurológiai Klinika



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Relationship of adolescents’ eating behavior and motivations with self-control and risk perception]

SZABÓ Katalin, PIKÓ Bettina

[Obesity and related diseases caused by unhealthy eating form a serious public health problem already in youth. In terms of prevention, it is essential to explore adolescents’ eating behaviors and factors influencing their diet. Our study aimed to explore adolescents’ eating behaviors, its motivations and their relation to self-control and risk perception related to eating behavior. Participants were 374 high school students (48% males; mean age: 16 years, S.D.=1.5) from Szeged and Bu­da­pest. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection which assessed socio-demographics, eating behaviors, mo­ti­vation, eating behavior related risk perception and self-control. Using factor analysis, we categorized eating behaviors (“junk food/drink consumption”; “health-oriented nutrition”; and “snacking and habit-oriented nutrition”), and eating motivations (“social, emotional and external motives”; “traditions and internal motives”; and “health motives”). According to correlation analysis, self-control was positively related to health-oriented nutrition and health motives and negatively to junk food/drink consumption and social, emotional and external motives. These two latter factors were associated with an increased risk perception as well. Our results draw the attention to strengthen self-control and explore the role of risk perception and eating motivations in school health education programs. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiovascular prevention 2021 – Guidelines of European Society of Cardiology 2021. Special considerations]


[On 31 August 2021, the European Society of Cardiology published its guideline “Prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice”. This guideline provides a comprehensive review about risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, their assessment, potential modifiers, treatment and prevention of the cardiovascular dis­ease itself at societal and individual levels respectively. The previous guideline issued 2016, had to be updated due to the recent significant advances in risk prediction of cardiovascular disease on atherosclerotic background and due to the beneficial effects of treatment, emerging new drugs and therapeutic targets. The risk assessment system has undergone a major overhaul and now predicts the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events together over a 10-year horizon and over a lifetime. In the new guideline, age plays a more important role in risk classification than before. The risk assessment and staged management of apparently healthy people or patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and other specific diseases or conditions are detailed. The positive impact of influencing risk factors, the years of life gained can recently be presented in a lifetime perspective, which will help to make an individually tailored decision on the extent of interventions, while taking into account also the patient’s preferences.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[New approach in the treatment of elevated lipoprotein(a)]


[Lipoprotein(a) is a genetic trait, resembling the structure of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Due to its high atherogenicity it is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular diseases. External impacts (as dietary and lifestyle measurements) do not decrease its plasma level thus the primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention prefers primarily the drug therapy. How­ever, widely used lipid lowering agents do not have any impact on its plasma level. Recently, the PCSK9 inhibitor monoclonal antibodies (evolocumab and alirocumab), the small interfering mRNA inclisiran, and particularly the antisense oligonucleotide targeting the LPA mRNS, further the clinical use of pelacarsen produced significant lipoprotein(a) lowering effect. Beyond the atherosclerotic vascular diseases, lipoprotein(a) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the calcific aortic valvular stenosis, as well. The usage of the above-men­tioned biological therapies in this condition is also promising. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A practical demonstration of critically assessing health economic analyses]

MERÉSZ Gergô, DÓCZY Veronika, HÖLGYESI Áron, NÉMETH Gergely

[During the critical assessment of health economic analyses, it is useful to present their uncertainties within a standardized framework. The aim of this research is to demonstrate how to use the procedural framework to identify, quantify and interpret such uncertainties through the examples of cell and gene therapies. Based on the review of methodological documents used by the Di­vi­sion of Health Technology Assessment at the National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition of Hungary (NIPN), and formalizing the current practice in its own framework, first we identify the uncertainty factors of the analysis and then examine their quantification in the submitted health economic model. Subsequently, we interpret their impact on the cost-effectiveness conclusion and determine the significance of all uncertainty factors. By applying the framework on the cost-effectiveness analysis of tisagenlecleucel as our example, we identified the following uncertainty factors. Although it is challenging to quantify, there is significant uncertainty related to the effectiveness of comparator procedure, which is due to single-arm clinical trials and the use of secondary data sources. The discount rate had a quantifiable and significant impact on both health gains and costs. Methods used to estimate relative effectiveness are also quantifiable but have less of an impact on the conclusions. The presented framework proved to be appropriate, with some li­mitations to document and arranging uncertainties of health economic analyses. It is advised to use this framework for reimbursement decisions for public financing. A possible subject of methodological development is the further formalization of identifying factors of uncertainty.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Liquor-draining shunt and abdominal surgery]

VERTSE Gergely, TAKÁCS Tamás, SZELECZKY Márton, LESTÁR Béla, IMREH Domonkos

[Authors present three abdominal surgical cases of patients who underwent previous ventriculo- or lumboperitoneal shunt implantation. A laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy and a right hemicolectomy were performed. The recovery of all patients was uneventful. Abdominal surgery is safe in patients with persisting ventriculo- or lumboperitoneal shunt.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer and non-Alzheimer dementias


In aging societies, the morbidity and mortality of dementia is increasing at a significant rate, thereby imposing burden on healthcare, economy and the society as well. Patients’ and caregivers’ quality of life and life expectancy are greatly determined by the early diagnosis and the initiation of available symptomatic treatments. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have been the cornerstones of Alzheimer’s therapy for approximately two decades and over the years, more and more experience has been gained on their use in non-Alzheimer’s dementias too. The aim of our work was to provide a comprehensive summary about the use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimers’s dementias.

Clinical Neuroscience

The applications of transcranial Doppler in ischemic stroke


Background: This overview provides a summary of the applications of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in ischemic stroke. Results: A fast-track neurovascular ultrasound protocol has been developed for detecting occlusion or stenosis. The technique is more reliable in the carotid area than in the posterior circulation. By monitoring the pulsatility index the in­crea­sed intracranial pressure can be diagnosed. TIBI score was developed for grading residual flow. TCD has been shown to accurately predict complete or any recanalization. Regarding recanalization, TCD has a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 88%, a positive predictive value of 96%, a negative predictive value of 78% and an overall accuracy of 91%, respectively. Sonothrombolysis seemed to be a promising application but randomized controlled trials have shown that it does not improve clinical outcome. TCD examination can detect microembolic signals (MES) which are associated with an increased risk of stroke. Micro­em­boli were detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and during carotid endarterectomy. The number of microemboli can be decreased by antithrombotic therapy. Contrast en­chan­ced examination and Valsalva maneuver with continuous TCD monitoring can accurately screen for right-to-left shunt.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Consensus statement of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenic Society about the therapy of adult SMA patients]

BOCZÁN Judit, KLIVÉNYI Péter, KÁLMÁN Bernadette, SZÉLL Márta, KARCAGI Veronika, ZÁDORI Dénes, MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[Background – Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neuromuscular disorder resulting in a loss of lower motoneurons. Recently, new disease-modifying treatments (two drugs for splicing modification of SMN2 and one for SMN1 gene replacement) have become available. Purpose – The new drugs change the progression of SMA with neonatal and childhood onset. Increasing amount of data are available about the effects of these drugs in adult patients with SMA. In this article, we summarize the available data of new SMA therapies in adult patients. Methods – Members of the Executive Committee of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenetic Society surveyed the literature for palliative treatments, randomized controlled trials, and retrospective and prospective studies using disease modifying therapies in adult patients with SMA. Patients – We evaluated the outcomes of studies focused on treatments of adult patients mainly with SMA II and III. In this paper, we present our consensus statement in nine points covering palliative care, technical, medical and safety considerations, patient selection, and long-term monitoring of adult patients with SMA. This consensus statement aims to support the most efficient management of adult patients with SMA, and provides information about treatment efficacy and safety to be considered during personalized therapy. It also highlights open questions needed to be answered in future. Using this recommendation in clinical practice can result in optimization of therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Systemic thrombolysis and endovascular intervention in postpartum stroke]


[Introduction - There are no previously published cases about intravenously applied recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke during puerperium. Case presentation - We report a 40-year-old woman with postpartum acute ischemic stroke caused by multiple cervical artery dissections treated by systemic thrombolysis and endovascular intervention. Discussion - There are only limited data regarding thrombolytic treatment in acute stroke during pregnancy and puerperium. Current acute stroke treatment guidelines - while considering pregnancy as a relative exclusion criterion - do not deal with the postpartum state. Conclusion - As the condition is rare, randomized controlled trials are not feasible, therefore further reports on similar cases could eventually help us suggest guidelines or at least propose recommendations for the acute thrombolytic treatment of strokes occurring in pregnancy and puerperium.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Hypertension, COPD and COVID-19. Focus on antihypertensive therapy]


[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very common comorbidity of hypertension and it is often unrecognised by physicians. The factors involved in the pathomechanism of both diseases should be realised when choosing treatment. Among factors, hypoxia, increased tone of sympathetic nervous system and activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system should primarily be considered. Vascular wall damage and endothelial dysfunction has an important role in both conditions. The goals of treatment are elimination of risk factors, optimizing the blood pressure, the consequential prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular, renal and pulmonary damage; finally prolonging the patients’ life and improving their quality of life as well. Both hypertension and COPD significantly worsen the condition of COVID-19 patients since they increase the severity of the disease and the rate of in-patients’ and their mortality. In the treatment of hypertension among COPD and COVID-19 patients there must be emphasized the medication inhibiting of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, such as angiotensin-converting en­zyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II AT1 re­cep­tor antagonists. Special attention concerned the beneficial effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. Other antihypertensive drugs (calcium channel blockers, thiazide-like diu­retics, high selectivity β1 receptor antagonists) may supplement the treatment if necessary. Long-acting β2 receptor agonists, muscarinic receptor antagonists and inhalation corticosteroids may be administered in double or triple combination also in hypertension and COPD as well. It is important to note, that statin therapy and also vitamin D3 improve the condition of COVID-19 patients.]