Lege Artis Medicinae

[Sudden, unexpected cardiac death: not everyone can help?]


JANUARY 20, 2013

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2013;23(01)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Rituximab therapy in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies]

BODOKI Levente, VINCZE Melinda, GRIGER Zoltán, CSONKA Tamás, CSERI Karolina, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor, DANKÓ Katalin

[Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical weakness of proximal limb muscles. In the everyday practice it is not easy to treat idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. First-line therapy is based on corticosteroids. If there is no improvement in the symptoms and complaints in two months, a new immunosuppressant therapy has to be initiated. The aim of this summary is to present the biological agent rituximab in the therapy of this condition.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Fear of medical care: epidemiology and prevention among 5-6 years old children]

PÓCS Dávid, SIKLÓSI Réka, NYÁRI Tibor, BARABÁS Katalin

[INTRODUCTION - At least 5-10% of the adult population is afraid of medical care. These fears may begin in preschool years. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the rates of medical fears among 5-6 year old children, and to prove that medical fears can be reduced by a health promotion program for children called “Teddy Bear Hospital” POPULATION AND METHODS - 248 children participated in the study (average age: 5.5 years, 45% girl, 55% boy). The “Teddy group” (129 children) took part in the Teddy Bear hospital program (Teddy group). The control group (119 children) did not take part in this program (control group). Questionnaires, including a Visual Analog Scale, a picture test, and drawing analyses were completed on two separate occasions three weeks apart difference. RESULTS - Fear of needles was the most frequent fear (59%) among the participating children, followed by the fear of medical environment (33%), the fear because of the lack of information (27%), the fear of doctors (20%), and the fear of pain (15%). On the basis of the picture test the fear of doctors significantly decreased in the Teddy group (from 18% to 7%) compared with the control group (from 10% to 11%, p<0.05). Drawing analyses also showed that children in the Teddy group had significantly lower levels of medical anxiety (29% and from 19.3 point to 17.6 point) than the control group (19% p<0.05 and from 18.8 point to 18,33 point p<0.05). On the drawings of the Teddy group we found significantly more new medical information (38%) compared with the control group (21%, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS - Medical fears are frequently present among 5-6 year old children, therefore, their prevention is greatly needed. A potential way of the prevention is the “Teddy Bear Hospital” program, which efficiently reduces children's medical fears and anxiety.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Tutankhamun’s Mysterious Death]

BECHER Péter, MÁJER Katalin, PATAI Árpád

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Succesful treatment of metastatic breast cancer with fulvestrant]

HERODEK Gabriella

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Private Physician and State Advisor of Tzar Alexander I János Orlay, a Polymath Physician ]

V. MOLNÁR László

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Clinical Neuroscience

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

Clinical Neuroscience

Autonomic nervous system may be affected after carpal tunnel syndrome surgery: A possible mechanism for persistence of symptoms after surgery

ONDER Burcu, KELES Yavuz Betul

After carpal tunnel surgery, some patients report complaints such as edema, pain, and numbness. Purpose – The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system function in patients with a history of carpal tunnel surgery using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Thirty three patients (55 ±10 years old) with a history of unilateral operation for carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. The SSR test was performed for both hands. Both upper extremities median and ulnar nerve conduction results were recorded. A reduced amplitude (p=0.006) and delayed latency (p<0.0001) were detected in the SSR test on the operated side compared to contralateral side. There was no correlation between SSR and carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Although complex regional pain syndrome does not develop in patients after carpal tunnel surgery, some of the complaints may be caused by effects on the autonomic nervous system.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Zonisamide: one of the first-line antiepileptic drugs in focal epilepsy ]


[Chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs without history of unprovoked epileptic seizures are not recommended for epilepsy prophylaxis. Conversely, if the patient suffered the first unprovoked seizure, then the presence of epileptiform discharges on the EEG, focal neurological signs, and the presence of epileptogenic lesion on the MRI are risk factors for a second seizure (such as for the development of epilepsy). Without these risk factors, the chance of a second seizure is about 25-30%, while the presence of these risk factors (for example signs of previous stroke, neurotrauma, or encephalitis on the MRI) can predict >70% seizure recurrence. Thus the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) re-defined the term ’epilepsy’ which can be diagnosed even after the first seizure, if the risk of seizure recurrence is high. According to this definition, we can start antiepileptic drug therapy after a single unprovoked seizure. There are four antiepileptic drugs which has the highest evidence (level „A”) as first-line initial monotherapy for treating newly diagnosed epilepsy. These are: carbamazepine, phenytoin, levetiracetam, and zonisamide (ZNS). The present review focuses on the ZNS. Beacuse ZNS can be administrated once a day, it is an optimal drug for maintaining patient’s compliance and for those patients who have a high risk for developing a non-compliance (for example teenagers and young adults). Due to the low interaction potential, ZNS treatment is safe and effective in treating epilepsy of elderly people. ZNS is an ideal drug in epilepsy accompanied by obesity, because ZNS has a weight loss effect, especially in obese patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Cyanocobalamin and cholecalciferol synergistically improve functional and histopathological nerve healing in experimental rat model

ALBAY Cem, ADANIR Oktay, AKKALP Kahraman Asli, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, GULAEC Akif Mehmet, BEYTEMUR Ozan

Introduction - Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a frequent problem among young adults. Hopefully, regeneration can occur in PNI unlike central nervous system. If nerve cut is complete, gold standard treatment is surgery, but incomplete cuts have been tried to be treated by medicines. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare clinical and histopathological outcomes of independent treatment of each of Vitamin B12 (B12) and Vitamin D3 (D3) and their combination on sciatic nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods - Experimental animal study was performed after the approval of BEH Ethics Committee No. 2015/10. 32 rats were grouped into four (n=8) according to treatment procedures, such as Group 1 (controls with no treatment), Group 2 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12), Group 3 (oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3), Group 4 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12+ oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3). Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and histopathological analysis were performed. Results - SFIs of Group 2, 3, 4 were statistically significantly higher than controls. Group 2 and 3 were statistically not different, however Group 4 was statistically significantly higher than others according to SFI. Axonal degeneration (AD) in all treatment groups were statistically significantly lower than in Group 1. AD in Group 4 was significantly lower than in Group 2 and 3; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and 3. There was no significant difference between Group 1,2 and 3 in Axonolysis (A). But A of Group 4 was significantly very much lower than all others. Oedema- inflammation (OE-I) in all treatment groups were significantly lower than in Group 1; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and group 4. OE-I in Group 2 and 4 were significantly lower than in Group 3. There were no significant differences between Group 1, 2 and 3 in damage level scores; score of Group 4 was significantly lower than of Group 1. Conclusions - B12 and D3 were found effective with no statistically significant difference. But combined use of B12 and D3 improve nerve healing synergistically. We recommend combined use of B12 and D3 after PNI as soon as possible.

Clinical Neuroscience

Delirium due to the use of topical cyclopentolate hydrochloride


Introduction - Our aim is to present a rare case where a child had delirium manifestation after instillation of cyclopentolate. Case presentation - A 7-year old patient was seen in our outpatient clinic, and cyclopentolate was dropped three times at 10 minutes intervals in both eyes. The patient suddenly developed behavioral disorders along with gait disturbance, and complained of visual hallucinations 20-25 minutes after the last drop. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit and 0.02 mg/kg IV. physostigmine was administered. The patient improved after minutes of onset of physostigmine, and was discharged with total recovery after 30 minutes. Conclusion - Delirium is a rare systemic side effect of cyclopentolate. The specific antidote is physostigmine, which can be used in severely agitated patients who are not responding to other therapies.