Lege Artis Medicinae

[SCIENTIFIC DIGEST]

MARCH 21, 2006

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2006;16(03)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[A Bit of Maths...]

GRÉTSY Zsombor

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FREQUENCY OF BODY BUILDING AND THE PREVENTIVE FACTORS OF EATING DISORDERS IN YOUNG MALES]

LUKÁCS Liza, TÚRY Ferenc, ARGALÁSZ Attila, MURÁNYI István

[INTRODUCTION - The risk of eating disorders is higher among young women where a slim body ideal dominates. In contrast, the male body ideal is based on the athletic type. The aim of the present study was to assess the relevance of the athletic ideal as a risk factor in certain professional subcultures of young men with respect to intensive workout and body dissatisfaction. These can be important risk factors of muscle dysmorphia in certain populations. METHOD - Body and eating attitudes, as well as workout habits of 1232 military and “general” college male students were studied using questionnaires. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects, and general demographic data and information on their bodybuilding practice were also obtained. RESULTS - General college students had a significantly higher mean body mass index than military students (23.9 vs. 23.5 kg/m2). The prevalence of those engaged in bodybuilding was surprisingly high among the military students (64.5%). Comparisons between and within groups also showed significantly different scores on several subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory. CONCLUSION - The findings suggest that male military college students tend to have protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Art in the Shade of the Plague]

NÉMETH István

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Metabolic syndrome - obesity syndrome?]

NAGY Viktor

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A NEW WAY OF LONG-TERM ORAL ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY IN HUNGARY]

BODA Zoltán

[Coumarins have been widely used for the prevention of arterial and venous thromboembolism. The importance of oral anticoagulants has steadily increased in internal medicine and cardiology in the past 20 years. Coumarins are vitamin K antagonists by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors in liver cells. Since the average half-life of hydroxycoumarin is longer than that of aceno-coumarin, the INR of patients treated with hydroxy-coumarin is more stable, thus making it especially suitable for long-term anticoagulant treatment. The main indications of coumarin therapy include secondary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism, and primary and secondary prevention of arterial thromboembolism, particularly embolic stoke, in patients with cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the most important clinical issues of long-term oral anticoagulant therapy including indications, contraindications, dosing, therapeutic range, and laboratory monitoring. Special emphasis is placed on the role of hydroxy-coumarin in longterm oral anticoagulant therapy.]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[SCIENTIFIC DIGEST]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The facets of creativity in the light of bipolar mood alterations]

SZAKÁCS Réka

[The link between creativity, as the highest expression form of human achievement, and bipolar disorder came into focus of scientific investigations and research. Accomplished writers, composers and visual artists show a substantially higher rate of affective disorders, prodominantly bipolar mood disorders, comparing to the general population. Then again, patients afflicted with bipolar II subtype (hypomania and depression), as well as persons presenting the mildest form of bipolar mood swings (cyclothymia) possess higher creative skills. It evokes therefore that certain forms and mood states of bipolar disorder, notably hypomania might convey cognitive, emotional/affective, and motivational benefits to creativity. The aim of this paper is to display expression forms of creativity (writing, visual art, scientific work) as well as productivity (literary and scientific work output, number of artworks and exhibitions, awards) in the light of clinically diagnosed mood states at an eminent creative individual, treated for bipolar II disorder. Analysing the affective states, we found a striking relation between hypomanic episodes and visual artistic creativity and achievement, as well as scientific performance, whereas mild-moderate depressed mood promoted literary work. Severe depression and mixed states were not associated with creative activities, and intriguingly, long-term stabilised euthymic mood, exempted from marked affective lability, is disadvantageous regarding creativity. It seems, thereby, that mood functions as a sluice of creativity. Nevertheless, it is likely that there is a complex interaction between bipolar mood disorder spectrum and psychological factors promoting creativity, influenced also by individual variability due to medication, comorbid conditions, and course of disorder.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[EVEN VISITING SCIENTISTS COULD MAKE DISCOVERIES IN MONTREAL]

LÁZÁR György

[This publication summarizes the scientific adventure with Professor Selye, and focuses on the specific effect of rare metal salts on reticuloendothelial functions. Rare earth metal ions markedly affect the functions of cells involved in inflammatory and immunological phenomena. The Kupffer cell blockade induced by GdCl3 is a generally accepted method for investigation of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of Kupffer cells. Potential beneficial effects of macrophage blockade have been demonstrated in different shock states, liver injury and obstructive jaundice.]