Lege Artis Medicinae

[Rivaroxaban therapy for venous thromboembolism: the EINSTEIN study]

BODA Zoltán

APRIL 22, 2011

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2011;21(04)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[IgG4-related disease]

ZEHER Margit

[IgG-4-related disease is a clinical entity characterised by significant elevation in serum IgG-4 levels, infiltration of IgG-4+ plasma cells into the involved tissues, enhanced fibrosis, and good therapeutic response to corticosteroids. The IgG-4 associated disease mostly affects two organs. The salivary and lacrimal gland enlargement and inflammation is known as Mikulicz’s disease, which had been previously known as a subtype of Sjögren’s syndrome for a long time. The other commonly involved organ is the pancreas, in which a special form of chronic pancreatitis, namely autoimmune pancreatitis develops. IgG-4 associated disease as a separate disease has been suggested by Japanese authors. Previously published data support the common pathogenesis of autoimmune pancreatitis and Mikulicz’s disease. Besides these two manifestations, similar histological lesions and elevated IgG-4 levels have been demonstrated in many other organs. At present, it is not clearly demonstrated whether IgG-4 syndrome is an autoimmune disorder, and we do not know the exact reason of the elevated IgG-4 levels in patients with this syndrome. IgG-4 is a regulatory immunoglobulin, the main function of which is to decelerate immune responses, thus its pathologic role in tissue destruction is difficult to explain. It is not clear either, whether IgG-4 syndrome is indeed a single disease, or only an example of overlapping symptoms of various diseases. On the basis of the characteristic histological lesions in various organs, IgG-4 syndrome is similar to multi-organ diseases, such as sarcoidosis or vasculitis.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Halogen addition and steroid effect]

NAGY Nikoletta, KEMÉNY Lajos

[Among locally administered anti-inflammatory drugs used in dermatology, steroids are among the most commonly applied ones. In everyday practice, choosing the right local steroid preparation is not easy, since more than 50 different local steroid preparations with at least 30 different active ingredients are available. The choice of the local steroid preparation depends on a number of aspescts. It is recommended to apply local steroid preparations that, besides having a strong effect, also have favourable side effect profiles. Moreover, it is subservient to apply local steroids that penetrate deeply into the skin, but have minimal systemic absorption, therefore do not inhibit significantly the hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis if administered locally. These characteristics of local steroid preparations are determined by chemical modifications at various positions on the steroid-frame. In this study, we examined the different types of chemical modifications, and the relationship between halogen addition and the characteristics of steroid preparations. We compared the local steroid preparations using the data of previous clinical trials. Regarding the efficacy, safety, tolerability and the risk/benefit ratio, the halogenated steroid preparations were overall superior to nonhalogeneted ones. Among the halogenated preparations, the fluticasone propionate, the mometasone furoate and clobetasol propionate were proved to be the most suitable locally administered, very potent or super potent ones.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, treatment and care of diabetic patients in the adulthood - Novelties in the position statement of the Hungarian Diabetes Association, 2011]

JERMENDY György

[The position statement of the Hungarian Diabetes Association has been renewed in 2011. The new version of the position statement, comparing to that of the formerly published one in 2009, implies some new data which are currently reviewed. Besides target value of antidiabetic treatment the importance of the target range is emphasized. Details about the monogenic forms of diabetes and the role of the continuous glucose monitoring system are discussed. A treatment algorithm for type 2 diabetes is published and the use of newly available antidiabetic drugs is summarized. Finally, the importance of the early diagnosis and the prevention of diabetes mellitus are pointed out.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Deliberate Morphine Overdose in Hungary ]

MÁRKUS Attila

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Fulvestrant therapy in elderly: long survival, good quality of life]

UHLYARIK Andrea, RIEDL Erika, ÁGOSTON Péter, SARKADI Gábor, PÁPAI Zsuzsanna

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Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Comment to the article titled “Exploratory study of outcomes of blood sample mass examinations by rank correlations”]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The author’s response to the comment on “Exploratory study of outcomes of blood sample mass examinations by rank correlations”]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]