Lege Artis Medicinae

[Pictures by Zsuzsi Csiszér]

JULY 27, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(06-07)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Melatonin, sleep and the circadian rhythm: theoretical considerations and their chronopharmacological applications ]

BÓDIZS Róbert

[The predictive homeostasis of living organisms is an anticipatory adaptation to rhythmical environmental changes. A good example for this is the circadian rhythm preparing the organism for the alternation of day and night. The circadian rhythm of melatonin production anticipates the timing and duration of nocturnal sleep of human subjects. It also induces a sleep-like stimulusprocessing mode of the brain and - in case of adequate environmental circumstances - a soporific and in part, a sleep-inducing effect. Specificities of melatonin effects on sleep are the reduction of slow-wave EEG activity, as well as the increase in seep EEG spindling and REM sleep time. Like other substances with hypnotic properties, melatonin decreases core body temperature, but has also a strong chronobiotic effect that is expressed as rapid and strong phase shifts of the circadian rhythm, depending on the time of day of melatonin administration. Because light acutely suppresses melatonin production, adequately timed light exposition, containing also low wavelength components, together with exogenous melatonin, could be useful in treating jet-lag syndrome and other circadian rhythm disorders.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Original and generic drugs: Research, efficacy, utilization, and financing ]

NOSZÁL Béla

[Starting from the definition of medicinal drugs, this paper covers the terms of original, active principles, original and generic drugs, and their distinctive and identical properties. It also surveys the fundamentals of drug-marketing authorization, criteria of therapeutic and bioequivalence, pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic equivalence, and development possibilities of generic drugs.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Use of proton pump inhibitors in practice]

DEMETER Pál

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Off-label drug prescription in crossfire]

BÖLCS Ágnes

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[What to do with tinnitus? - Differential diagnostical and therapeutical guideline]

GERLINGER Imre

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[INTRODUCTION - After the discovery of X-ray it was not only used for medical purposes, but also to study the internal structure of various objects. The X-ray examination can be applied not only to examine paintings, but other works of art. METHODS AND RESULTS - The rontgenograms are made by industrial film without any screen in the museum. In case of paintings soft-beam examination technique was used. The basic principle of the X-ray examination of different paintings is based on the presence of different atomic number in different paints. Authors after the examination of four paintings achieved a significant finding. In these paintings the stylistic and structural features of the pictures, injuries, originality, changes in the composition during the work of the artist can be studied. CONCLUSIONS - Recordings made by an industrial radiological equipment in the Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest) are helpful in the restorer work.]

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[The Pictures of Paul Klee ]

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[Does the use of barium in a stomach x-ray influence the following ultrasoung exam]

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[There is a general opinion that the presence of barium in the gastrointestinal tract (after the examination of the stomach or the large intestine) may influence the following abdominal ultrasound examination. In this study we have planned to decide whether this statement is also true in case of modern, good quality equipment, for this attitude can cause delay in the diagnostic procedure. Seventy ultrasound pictures of 35 patients were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists according to the double blind method using a „score-system" (0—4). Five anatomic regions were examined, in 20 patiens before and after a stomach examination and in 15 ones before and after a double-contrast stomach examination. The results suggest that the barium doesn't cause any worsening of the quality of sonograms, probably the gas applied with the contrast medium. ]