Lege Artis Medicinae

[Original and generic drugs: Research, efficacy, utilization, and financing ]

NOSZÁL Béla

JULY 27, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(06-07)

[Starting from the definition of medicinal drugs, this paper covers the terms of original, active principles, original and generic drugs, and their distinctive and identical properties. It also surveys the fundamentals of drug-marketing authorization, criteria of therapeutic and bioequivalence, pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic equivalence, and development possibilities of generic drugs.]

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[Prevalence and potential predictors of morbidity among hungarian female physicians]

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[BACKGROUND - We explored the general health status of physicians in Hungary using a nationwide sample. Based on international and Hungarian literature, we hypothesised that the prevalence of psychiatric and somatic morbidity is higher among female physicians in Hungary compared to the normative population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - The objective of our cross-sectional research was to study the morbidity of Hungarian female physicians as well as to analyse background factors. Data for this national study were collected from 408 female physicians. 818 white collar workers from a representative survey (Hungarostudy 2002) served as controls. RESULTS - The prevalence of chronic somatic morbidity and reproduction disorders among female physicians was significantly higher than that in the control group. The female physicians have more chronic diseases, and the somatic morbidity have been appeared earlier. Correlation analyses confirmed a significant relationship: the chronic morbidity associated with injurious to health, sleep disorders and higher levels of work-family conflict. We found that the prevalence of chronic somatic morbidity among female physicians was significantly higher than that in the respective control groups. CONCLUSION - The higher prevalence of somatic and mental morbidity of Hungarian female physicians has important consequences. This may influence health care systems and thus might lead increased morbidity and mortality of Hungarian population.]

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[The predictive homeostasis of living organisms is an anticipatory adaptation to rhythmical environmental changes. A good example for this is the circadian rhythm preparing the organism for the alternation of day and night. The circadian rhythm of melatonin production anticipates the timing and duration of nocturnal sleep of human subjects. It also induces a sleep-like stimulusprocessing mode of the brain and - in case of adequate environmental circumstances - a soporific and in part, a sleep-inducing effect. Specificities of melatonin effects on sleep are the reduction of slow-wave EEG activity, as well as the increase in seep EEG spindling and REM sleep time. Like other substances with hypnotic properties, melatonin decreases core body temperature, but has also a strong chronobiotic effect that is expressed as rapid and strong phase shifts of the circadian rhythm, depending on the time of day of melatonin administration. Because light acutely suppresses melatonin production, adequately timed light exposition, containing also low wavelength components, together with exogenous melatonin, could be useful in treating jet-lag syndrome and other circadian rhythm disorders.]

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