Lege Artis Medicinae

[One year of LAM]

SAS Géza

JANUARY 29, 1992

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1992;2(01)

[Where did we start, where are we, where are we heading?]

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Biological and Pathological Significance of Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death)]

SZENDE Béla

[Programmed cell death (apoptosis) basically differs from necrosis regarding its biological significance, the morphological signs and biochemical events. Apoptosis is the result of an active cell function, so-called cell-suicide and it is observable in several biological as well as pathological processes. Enhancement of apoptosis can be achieved in malignant tumors by hormonal treatment. This explains the mode of action of hormones in tumor therapy and also contributes to the alterations in gene regulation leading to apoptosis.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The use of BCG immunotherapeutic for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer (carcinoma in situ and papillary tumor)]

CSIZÉR Zoltán

[BCG Immunotherapeutic (BCG IT) is the first immunomodulator to be licenced in Canada, Germany and the United States for the use in the treatment of carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The product licence was granted following the conduct of a well designed efficacy study. The study was multicente red, independent and controlled with well defined end points and a long follow up period. The results clearly shows that BCG immunotherapy is significantly more effective than Adriamycin chemotherapy. There is no evidence to suggest a difference in severity of toxicities between BCG and Adriamycin treatment groups.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography in aortic dissection]

LENGYEL Mária

[ The severe prognosis of aortic dissection can only be improved by early diagnosis. The role of echocardiography was assessed. Echocardiographic findings were analysed in 32 patients in whom aortic dissection was confirmed by other methods between September 1984 and July 1991. In 19 of them only transthoracic echo (TTE), in 13 patients both TTE and transesophageal echo (TEE) was performed. Control group consisted of 21 patients in whom the clinical suspicion of dissection was ruled out. The DeBakey classification was used. Among 14 acute and 18 chronic cases type I was confirmed in 9, type II in 15 and type III in 8. The sensitivity of clinical suspicion, TTE, TEE and angiography was 34, 72, 92, 94% resp. TEE correctly identified the types, entry and reentry sites, false lumen and left coronary ostium. TTE was valuable in the detection of complications and of etiologic factors of dissection. Hypertension (12) and Marfan's syndrome (7) were the leading etiologic factors. As previously has been reported in the diagnosis of aortic dissection TEE was a safe and reliable technique. It was superior to TTE and was as correct as angiography. The combined use of TTE and TEE is recommended in each case of clinically suspected dissection. The importance of the echocardiographic detection of cardiac complications and etiologic factors is emphasized in the management and prevention.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Oral symptoms in the early diagnosis of leukaemias]

GYURKOVICS Csilla, BÁNÓCZY Jolán

[Diseases of the haemopoetic system are often preceeded and/or accompanied by clinical changes in the oral cavity, which, as first signs of the disease, might be of important diagnostic value. Primary oral findings are characteristic mainly of acute leukaemias, such as haemorrhagies, petechias, ecchymoses, ulcera, gingival hy pertrophy, painful gingiva, tooth mobility, candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, lymph node enlargements. Oral manifestations of chronic leukaemia may also arouse the suspicion of a haemopoetic disease. Applied cytostatic therapy might aggravate the condition of oral manifestations. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Peritoneal dyalisis in hungary]

KARÁTSON András, MAKÓ János

[Traditional intermittent peritoneal dialysis in patients with chronic uremia lasts for 8 to 10 hours three times a week. In 1976 Popovich et al. outlined the principle of CAPD (Continu ous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis), a technique giving good results in the removal of water and toxic substances. The procedure is used in 19 000 patients in US and in 9600 patients in Europe. In early 1991 the technical conditions and the number of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis were surveyed in the Hungarian nephrological and dialysing units. Not only the number of patients with chronic uraemia (those undergoing dialysis + transplantation) is lower in this country as compared to the European average (106 versus, 236 per million people, respectively) but the distribution of patients according to the type of treatment they receive is also different. In Hungary intermittent peritoneal dialysis has been used in more than 10% of the cases for several years whereas the number of those receiving continuous peritoneal dialysis has been under 2%. (In Europe < 2% and 4–43%, respectively). The survey also included the types of solution, desinfection and connecting devices used in peritoneal dialysis, as well as the incidence of peritonitis and the administration of antibiotics . The principles of biocompatibility, the function of interleukin as well as the effectiveness and the conditions of home treatment are summarized. ]

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Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LAM 30: 1990–2020. Facing the mirror: Three decades of LAM, the Hungarian medicine and health care system]

KAPÓCS Gábor

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Dear Reader! Greetings to the 30th anniversary of founding the LAM]

KAPÓCS Gábor

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

VASTAGH Ildikó, SZŐCS Ildikó, OBERFRANK Ferenc, AJTAY András, BERECZKI Dániel

[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]