Lege Artis Medicinae

[Nursing during the War of Independence]

KAPRONCZAY Károly

JULY 27, 1994

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1994;4(07)

[After the appointment of the first responsible Hungarian ministry in the spring of 1848, it became possible to create new forms of health care governance, to establish offices for each of the country's tasks, and to create a framework for practical patient care. The latter was primarily linked to the organisation of the medical service of the army, and included the question of hospitalisation.]

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Lege Artis Medicinae

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[The authors summarize the relevant ultrasonic findings in case of suspected fetal chromosomal aberration. Some of these signs are detectable during routine ultrasonic screening examinations. In high-risk cases, prenatal chromosomal analysis is recommended. The following ultrasonic findings indicate a situation of high risk: disturbances of the lymphatic and amniotic fluids (e.g. hydrops, hygroma colli, polyhydramnios, nuchal edema), certain skull and brain alternations, abnormalities of the thorax and abdomen, and „minor” findings such as a single umbilical artery, choroid plexus cyst, pyelectasy, or changes in the size or shape of the long tubular bones, if these signs are accompanied by other anomalies or growth retardation.]

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[Advantages and limits of the open tube and flexible esophagoscopes]

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[The two types of endoscopes presently available for examination and treatment of the esophagus are the traditional open tube esophagoscope and the flexible endoscope. Despite the many advantages offered by the flexible endoscope, its limitations should not be forgotten. The open tube esophagoscope should not be thought of as out-of-date, since its new variations have important therapeutic applications. The authors examine the advantages and disadvantages of the two types of esophagoscopes as discussed in the literature. ]

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[An update on obstructive sleep apnea]

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[Obstructive sleep apnea, which occurs in approximately 2% of the adult population, is the more common of the two major forms of sleep apnea. The conse quences and dangers of excessive daytime sleepiness are emphasized along with the other well-known characteristics of sleep apnea syndrome. Both the decreased upper airway muscle tone during sleep and the negative pressure due to breathing through the obstructed airways may cause upper air ways to collapse. The history has a very important role in the clinical assessment, while the role of the physical examination is limited. An exact and reliable diagnosis may be arrived at through laboratory evaluation, e. g. polysomnography (PSG), Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), or radiologic examinations. Among conservative treatments, reduction of the body weight is usually effective in mild to moderate cases. In severe apneas, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is the current treatment of choice. The efficacy of surgical intervention is still controversial. According to most authors, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) has a 50% success rate. Most recently good results have been obtained with maxillo-facial surgery in a variety of selected patients. ]

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[Our goal was to evaluate which diagnostic and therapeutic approaches could provide a better chance of survival. Between January 1, 1987, and December 7, 1992, 772 patients with acute myocardial infarction were treated in the Hungarian Institute of Cardiology. Cardiac rupture was investigated by the retrospective analysis of clinical data, electrome chanical dissociation, echocardiographic signs and autopsy findings. Ventricular free wall rupture was found in 28 cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy in 23, by intraoperative findings in 4 cases, and by echocardiography and pericardiocentesis in 1 case. Pericardial effusion was detected in 12 of 14 cases undergoing emergency echocardiography. Seven of these had pericardiocentesis and 2 patients underwent surgical pericardial fenestration. Following this 4 patients were referred to surgery. All 4 patients died: 2 during and 2 shortly after operation. The bleeding stopped in 1 case, after pericardiocen tesis and continous drainage and during the 12 month follow-up the patient is alive and well. In acute myocardial infarction, electromechanical dissociation or signs of tamponade are indications for emergency echocardiography, and if pericardial effusion can be visualized, pericardiocentesis should be performed. This can lead to a temporary haemodynamic improvement, providing sufficient time for emergency surgery.]

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[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

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[A short chronicle of three decades ]

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[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

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