Lege Artis Medicinae

[MOTESZ General Assembly]


FEBRUARY 09, 1991

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1991;1(03)

[The Federation of Hungarian Medical Societies and Associations (MOTESZ) held its renewal meeting of delegates on 15 December 1990, a new departure from the regular annual and even quinquennial meetings of delegates, and a renewal of this long-standing association.]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in organic neurological diagnosis]

KENÉZ József

[In the last two decades, neuroimaging became the basic investigative method in the diagnostics of organic neurology due to the rapid development of medical electronics. In the nineties called the "Decade of the Brain", the importance of these methods could hardly bee overestimated. The two outstanding investigations of neuroimaging are computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR). Surely in the near future the application of these investigations will be incorporated in the Hungarian healthcare system as well. In this review all the points of view are collected on the basis of neurologic clinical symptomatology to help clinicians to decide, which method and when has to be chosen to gain the most valuable and detailed information on the quickest way, with less risk, and for the least amount of money ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Awareness of hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus: Prospective clinical-epidemiological investigations]


[In order to survey the frequency of hypoglycaemia and its awareness we investigated 91 insulin- treated diabetic women (48 pregnant and 43 non-pregnant) consecutively using 9 to 15 blood glucose measurements. Subjective hypoglycaemic symptoms of patients were registered by using a structured questionnaire. Biochemically proved hypoglycaemia has been found in two third of patients (62/91). One third of the patients had a loss of awareness, 23 had partial awareness and 19 were aware of hypoglycaemia. No significant difference were found according to age, diabetes duration, daily insulin dose/kg body weight, glycated haemoglobin levels and frequency of diabetic complications. Five standard cardiovascular autonomic reflex-tests were performed in 31 patients. Age, diabetes duration, frequency of diabetic complications of patients with evidence of autonomic neuropathy significantly surpassed that of having normal cardiovascular reflex-tests. Our results confirm from clinical-epidemiological aspect that hypoglycaemia unawareness is not invariably associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Five cases of operated atrial tumors]


[Between November 1986. and June 1989. five patients underwent excision of an atrial tumour. Two of the patients had previous peripheral embolization, two had cardiac symptoms and one was symptomless. All the tumours were demonstrated by means of echocardiography and in four cases by angiocardiography as well. Four of them were left atrial tumors and one in the right atrium. The tumors were succesfully removed in all patients: in three cases by shaving them from the endocardium, in one case by excising a portion of atrial septum and in one case with a margin of normal atrial wall. Histological examination showed thrombus in one case. All patients survived operation and left hospital in good conditions. During the follow up there were no cardiac complication or local recurrence.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Hypothesis of natural birth]


[It's supposed by the author that there exists a natural birth. According to his assumption in every woman's subconscionsness there is the code of the natural birth's behaviour (CODE), which can be spontaneously mobilized in the gravid woman. Putting into practice whichever way for the preparation of the birth, this mobilization can be advanced and in this way the child-bearing women's behaving repertory during their birth is increasing and it's drawing near to the equivalent of its own code. This may be the explication of the success and result of the alternative obstetrics end the preparing programs for the different births. The psychological explanation of the theory is given on the basis of C. G. Jung's activity.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Report on gastroenterological endoscopic activity in Hungary in 1989]

NAGY György, JUHÁSZ László

[The Endoscopic Section of the Hungarian Gastroenterological Society, under the leadership of Professor Wittmann, published an annual report on the status and development of endoscopy of the digestive organs in Hungary from 1975. In 1976, the report reported 27453 examinations performed at 75 endoscopic workplaces with 163 instruments. The 1987 survey already included 139496 examinations (36623 in Budapest, 102873 in the countryside) performed at 117 workplaces (37 in Budapest, 80 in the countryside) with 565 instruments (219 in Budapest, 346 in the countryside). In a statistical summary of 13 years, 968090 endoscopic examinations resulted in 389 (0.4 per thousand) complications, of which 71 (7 per 100,000) were fatal. The collection of study data was interrupted with the death of Professor Wittmann. ]

All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

VOKÓ Zoltán

[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Results of a national survey in the field of primary care]

HIRDI Henriett Éva, KÁLMÁNNÉ Simon Mária, BALOGH Zoltán

[To identify recent national trends in the employment and earnings of nursing personnel in primary healthcare and determine whether salaries and wage growth are associated with changes in the employment. The cross-sectional survey was conducted between 17 May 2021 and 17 June 2021 among nurses working in general, child and family practices, and dental practices selected using a random, sampling method (N=2007). The data gathering took place using a web-based, anonymous, self-completion questionnaire. The authors analysed the gathered data with Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 22.0 software, employing descriptive statistical methods. Participants are highly experienced, with 80% reporting more than 16 years of experience. 7.9% of nurses are educated at or above the baccalaureate level. The majority (89.5%) work full-time as employees of their organizations (95.4%). The GP’s territorial care obligation disparities in nurses salaries documented here should spark healthcare policymakers to conduct pay equity assessments of employees’ salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. The study findings also indicate that tailoring salaries to qualification for the individual nurses may aid in recruiting and retaining nurses in practice. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The importance of patient reported outcome measures in Pompe disease]

MOLNÁR Mária Judit, MOLNÁR Viktor, LÁSZLÓ Izabella, SZEGEDI Márta, VÁRHEGYI Vera, GROSZ Zoltán

[In recent decades it has become increasingly important to involve patients in their diagnostic and treatment process to improve treatment outcomes and optimize compliance. By their involvement, patients can become active participants in therapeutic developments and their observations can be utilized in determining the unmet needs and priorities in clinical research. This is especially true in rare diseases such as Pompe disease. Pompe disease is a genetically determined lysosomal storage disease featuring severe limb-girdle and axial muscle weakness accompanied with respiratory insufficiency, in which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) now has been available for 15 years. In our present study, patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for individuals affected with Pompe disease were developed which included questionnaires assessing general quality of life (EuroQoL, EQ-5D, SF36), daily activities and motor performance (Fatigue Severity Score, R-PAct-Scale, Rotterdam and Bartel disability scale). Data were collected for three subsequent years. The PROM questionnaires were a good complement to the physician-recorded condition assessment, and on certain aspects only PROMs provided information (e.g. fatigue in excess of patients’ objective muscle weakness; deteriorating social activities despite stagnant physical abilities; significant individual differences in certain domains). The psychological effects of disease burden were also reflected in PROMs. In addition to medical examination and certain endpoints monitored by physicians, patient perspectives need to be taken into account when assessing the effectiveness of new, innovative treatments. With involvement of patients, information can be obtained that might remain uncovered during regular medical visits, although it is essential in determining the directions and priorities of clinical research. For all orphan medicines we emphasize to include patients in a compulsory manner to obtain general and disease-specific multidimensional outcome measures and use them as a quality indicator to monitor treatment effectiveness.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Mentalizing deficit among patients with traumatic brain injury ]

TAMÁS Viktória, BÜKI András, HEROLD Róbert

[Mentalization or theory of mind as an aspect of our social cognition, is our ability to infer mental states of others (intentions, desires, thoughts, emotions) and to predict their behavior accordingly. This function significantly affects our participation and orientation in the social world and plays an important role in conversational situations, social interactions, social integ­ration and adaptation. The brain regions that serve as the basis for mind-reading function can be damaged as a consequence of traumatic brain injury, which frequently occurs among the younger population. Traumatic brain injury can cause focal or diffuse cerebral injuries, often leading to theory of mind deficit. In this topic such publications were researched that compared theory of mind ability between traumatic brain injury patients and control subjects (comparative case-control studies). We searched for the studies in the following internet based/online databases: PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, APA PsycNET (PsycARTICLES) and EBSCO Host. The search was performed using the following key word combinations: theory of mind or mentalizing or social cognition AND traumatic brain injury or head/brain injury or diffuse axonal injury. Based on the results of the included and processed studies (21 pc), traumatic brain injury often leads to mentalization deficit with different severity. With this present review we aim to draw attention to the fact that the appearance and severity of mind reading dysfunction can considerably affect the outcome of the disease, the length of rehabilitation time and the prognosis of traumatic brain injury patients. Besides this, with this review, we aim to take sides in whether theory of mind ability is domain-specific or domian-general based on studies including traumatic brain injury patients.]