Lege Artis Medicinae



MAY 20, 2005

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2005;15(05)

[Methods of nuclear cardiology have been applied for several decades and there is continuous development in this area. The most commonly used modality is the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). During stress MPS, the presence and the severity of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) can be detected. Resting MPS can show a freshly developing acut myocardial infarction (AMI) immediately, but new and old infarcted myocardial areas can not be distinguished by this method. Using SPECT (single photon emission tomography) examination and quantitative analysis can improve the accuracy of MPS. With gated SPECT we can analyse both the perfusion and the function of left ventricle. To examine the function of left and right ventricle the “gold standard” non-invasive method is MUGA (multiple gated acquisition) of blood pool scintigraphy. After only a few hours of the onset of AMI we can detect it with the socalled infarct avid scintigraphy using radiopharmaceuticals which accumulate in affected area. Following an AMI it is essential to differentiate among high and low risk patients for revascularisation treatment, therefore distinguishing the viable (hibernating) and non-viable (necrotic) myocardium with imaging techniques is an important task. Preserved metabolism as the sign of viable myocardium can be detected both by SPECT (most accurately by thallium rest-redistribution scintigraphy) and PET (detecting glucose metabolism by F-18-FDG). Adrenerg receptor scintigraphy can show the sympathetic innervation: in the case of a transplanted heart it can detect the reinnervation and in the case of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias the risks and the severity of the illness.]



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[Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is the progressive management of sudden cardiac arrest with the goal of restoring spontaneous circulation and preserve vital organ functions. Sudden cardiac death occuring out of hospital is still one of the major causes of death among otherwise healthy and young population however, approppriate management - certainly including resuscitation as the first step - might provide a reasonably good quality of life. Long term outcome of resuscitation is mainly determined by the links of the Chain of Survival, eg. early access, early CPR, early defibrillation and early advanced care. The aim of this review is to present the upto- date concepts for the best management of these survival links.]

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[In the focus: Dermatology]


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[The authors assess the two main outcomes of the immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplantation: graft and patient survival. According to their view, evidence from randomised clinical trials results can be well complemented by the several unique transplant registries and outcome research based upon these databases. The comparison of evidence from these two sources addresses the question of achievable outcome under ideal (controlled) versus real life conditions. Based on a systematic review of the relevant clinical trials and registries it can be stated, that in the case of some immunosuppressants (mycophenolate mofetil vs azathioprine, microemulsified cyclosporin vs cyclosporin and tacrolimus vs cyclosporin) the improvement in the intermediate outcome can lead to improved graft and patient survival, while in the case of other drugs no significant difference in hard endpoints were detected (tacrolimus vs microemulsified cyclosporin). Evidence on graft and patient survival differences could not be derived from traditional randomised clinical trials, only from transplant registries. For the sake of improved evidence based therapeutic guidelines in renal transplantation, authors call for further development of the Hungarian transplant registry.]

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[Neutropenia is an immunocompromised state commonly occurring in hematological practice. The underlying disorder responsible for a critical drop in absolute granulocyte count can either be of congenital or acquired nature. Neutropenic patients frequently develop serious, at times even fatal infections. Severity of illness, outcome, type of infecting organisms are markedly influenced by additional risk factors such as impaired T- or B-lymphocyte function as well as the injury of biological barriers. Neutropenic infections should generally be treated according to evidence-based guidelines. However, in certain groups of patients, where randomized trials are lacking, all identified components of immunodeficiency should be taken into account and antimicrobial treatment or prophylaxis should individually be tailored.]

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[Myocardial contrast echocardiography]


[Symptoms of ischemic heart disease will occur when myocardial perfusion diminishes below a critical level. Coronarography will disclose the anatomic stenoses, but there is no direct correlation between the grade of stenosis and the change of myocardial perfusion. Myocardial contrast echocardiography is a new technique to analyze the myocardial perfusion. The contrast agent contains micro bubbles which have nearly the same dimensions as red blood cells. The microbubbles increase the „whiteness" of the perfused myocardium during the echocardiographic examinations. The change in „whiteness" of the myocardium correlates with myocardial perfusion. Intracoronary injections delineate the perfusion area of the coronary artery, and Thus the coronary flow reserve and the collateral flow area can be measured. The cardioplegia fluid distribution and the graft perfusion area are examined intraoperatively. Bedside myocardial perfusion studies will be possible through the transpulmonary passage of intravenously injected contrast agents. Myocardial contrast echocardiography can be applied both in the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic heart disease.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Correlation of clinical parameters with myocardial perfusion grades in acute myocardial infarct patients]

UNGI Tamás, JÓNÁS Zsuzsanna, UNGI Imre, SASI Viktor, ZIMMERMAN Zsolt, PALKÓ András

[INTRODUCTION - The prognosis after opening the obstructed infarct-related coronary artery is influenced by several factors. In routine clinical practice revascularization is considered to be successful when the restoration of epicardial blood flow is complete. However, functional impairment in the myocardium can occur even with open epicardial arteries. There are two angiographic parameters closely related to myocardial viability: myocardial blush grade (MBG) that describes the quantity of contrast material in the myocardium, and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMP) that describes its outflow dynamics. Our goal was to assess the prognostic value of these two parameters in the framework of a prospective clinical study. PATIENTS AND METHODS - We compared the two parameters based on visual estimation (MBG and TMP) with those characterizing myocardial impairment, such as ejection fraction (EF), wall motion score index (WMSI), creatine-kinase release and chest pain score in 22 patients with acute myocardial infarction and successful revascularization. Our results were obtained by Spearman's rank correlation and χ2-tests at a confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS - Close correlation with TMP was found in case of both parameters measured by echocardiography (EF: r=0.59, p=0.02; WMSI: r=-0.51, p=0.046). These results were supported by the correlation with creatinekinase release (r=-0.54, P=0.01). By the present number of patients, MBG does not show significant correlation with the measured clinical parameters. Presence of chest pain is associated neither with TMP nor with MBG. CONCLUSIONS - Assessing myocardial perfusion by visual evaluation provides useful prognostic information. The extent of chest pain does not indicate myocardial dysfunction. The clearence of the dye (used in TMP definition) is more characteristic to myocardial viability than maximal contrast density (used in MBG definition).]

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.