Lege Artis Medicinae

[In crisis]

ANDRÁS László

MARCH 31, 1992

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1992;2(03)

[On the eighteenth day of December last year, László Surján, Minister of National Welfare, proudly reported to the Parliament of the Republic of Hungary that, "I think back to a year ago, when the budget debate in Parliament and the debate on the Social Security Fund budget were significantly out of sync in time. At the time, those of us who were and those who were not guilty of this were all disapproving of the fact that this situation had arisen. This year we managed to present the two budgets to the House at the same time."]

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[The discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing (prostacyclin, EDRF) and contracting factors (EDCF) in the last decade opened up new vistas in investigating the regulation of the cardiovascular system. In this review, recent results of the research of a 21 amino acid residue EDCF, called Endothelin, including its discovery, isolation, biosynthesis, tissue specific expression, receptors and the characteristics of the Endothelin converting enzyme are summarized. Based on present knowledge of the wide variety of biological actions of Endothelins, we present their possible autocrine, paracrine and humoral actions, and their significance in the physiological regulation of the cardiovascular system as well as in pathological conditions. Despite the abundance of information however, the actual role of Endothelins in the short- and long-term modulation of the tissue function still remains to be determined.]

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[The high incidence of intra-articular ligament injuries of the knee justifies a more frequent use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures such as the native CT scan. In positive cases, a correct preoperative diagnosis may be produced; a negative result is especially important, since diagnostic arthroscopy may be avoided. Due to the anatomic arrangement of the knee joint ligaments and theis density, which differentiates them from adjacent structures, an accurate, reliable, and reproducible image can be obtained with the native CT scan. With the high resolution charactaristic of the native CT scan, the ligaments of Humphry and Wrisberg can be visualized, and the two bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament can be distinguished from one another. Exact localization of intra-articular ligament rupture is essential in the planning of an optimal treatment schedule. According to the literature and the authors experience, the native CT scan is equivalent to the MRI as a diagnostic procedure in knee intra-articular ligament lesions. It has the advantage of being far less expensive and it is presently available in Hungary. ]

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