Lege Artis Medicinae

[Impact of changes in marital status on the right to dispose of frozen human embryos]

BODNÁR Béla, BAZSÁNÉ Kassai Zsuzsa

FEBRUARY 28, 1994

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1994;4(02)

[The frozen storage of human preembryos raises a number of ethical issues, which can be grouped into two main categories:1. the technical implementation of frozen storage, and 2. controversial or debatable situations related to changes in marital status. The first group includes ethical issues relating to the loss of preembryos during the procedure, the duration of storage, the cost of frozen storage, the transfer to other freezing programmes and the destruction of preembryos. The second group concerns the consequences of the death of one or both members of the (married) couple, the divorce of the couple and the change of the right of disposal of the frozen preembryos. ]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Management of inhibitory haemophilia A and aquired haemophilia]

PFLIEGLER György, RÁK Kálmán, KRÁLL Géza, SAS Géza, HAYNAL Imre

[The authors survey the occurrence and the laboratory and clinical differences of factor VIU antibodies in haemophiliacs (allo) and in non-haemophiliacs (auto) as well as their titer and measurement. The recent therapeutic modalities used in prevention, management of acute bleeds and suppression of antibody development or in duction of immune tolerance are detailed. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Back pain]


[The studies to be presented show that the duration and severity of episodes of low back pain can be reduced, thus reducing the risk of recurrence and the costs of sick leave and absenteeism. Frank reviews differential diagnosis; acute, chronic and intractable pain; and the health services needed. Modern treatment principles emphasise self-care at home, usually with no more than 48 hours bed rest. The importance of regaining physical fitness and resuming other activities, including work, is also stressed. Medication helps to achieve these goals. Two issues are emphasised: the strategy for the management of low back pain should be long-term and preventive; it is the responsibility of the patient, not the doctors, to maintain fitness, exercise regularly, do relaxation exercises and avoid damaging the spine. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Eating attitudes and eating disorders among secondary school dancers: a high risk group?]

TÚRY Ferenc, WILDMANN Márta, LÁSZLÓ Zsuzsa, JOÓ Mária Nóra

[The authors assessed the morbidity of eating disorders and the frequency of pathological eating attitudes in two secondary school populations in a two-stage study. The first sample consisted of two classes specialized in dancing (n=54), the second was a control group of two age-matched classes without specialization (n=61). In each group one girl met the criteria of bulimia nervosa, which was 2% of the whole population. No anorectic subject was identified while pathological eating attitudes were significantly higher among dancers characterized by an increased slimness ideal. On the basis of the study the risk of eating disorders is higher in this special population. However, this difference can be shown only in the frequency of subclinical, attitudinal disorders, not in that of clinically severe syndromes.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Heart attack primary prevention in hypertension trial]


[Comparison of diuretic versus beta-blocker antihypertensive treatment in men with mild-to-moderate hypertension in terms of nonfatal infarction, coronary mortality and all-cause mortality. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[Reflections on GP (family doctor) reform, training and more]

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[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[History of vaccine production in Hungary ]


[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

VOKÓ Zoltán

[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]