Lege Artis Medicinae

[I planted a ginkgo biloba]

NAGY Viktor

FEBRUARY 20, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(02)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Treatment of acute pancreatitis, with special regard to pharmaceutical therapy]

DÖBRÖNTE Zoltán

[Treatment of acute pancreatitis is mainly supportive, including the correction of any factors causing or sustaining the disease process, efforts to limit complications, as well as treatment of complications. Pharmaceutical efforts to influence the pathophysiological events with protease inhibitors or by influencing the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine cascade did not prove to be effective, so there is no known effective and specific drug therapy for clinical use. Adequate pain control is an important component of pharmaceutical management, and - although yet controversial - early antibiotic prophylaxis and effective antimicrobial treatment of the inflammatory complications (infected necrosis or fluid collection, SIRS, sepsis) have probably a determining role in the outcome of severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Carbapenems proved to be the most potent antibiotics. For the prevention of the not infrequent fungal superinfection in acute pancreatitis, early administration of fluconasole can also decrease mortality. Surgery is indicated in the first stage of infected necrosis and infected pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections. In certain patients with a high operative risk, endoscopic or percutaneous drainage with lavage can also be worth trying. Optimal conditions for the treatment of severe necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as adequate management of multiple organ failure can only be warranted at an intensive care unit. In the chemoprevention of pancreatitis complicating endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs promise a new therapeutic option. There are insufficient data about the beneficial effects of the protease inhibitor ulinastatin, and results with nitroglycerin are contradictory.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Sudden cardiac death in athletes - cardiac electrophysiology point of view]

VARRÓ András

[Sudden cardiac death of athletes is very rare (1/50 000 to 1/100 000 annually) but it is still 2 to 4 times more frequent than that of the agematched normal population. In addition, it attracts peculiar media attention. Sudden cardiac death in athletes is supposed to not primarily have an ischemic origin but most likely relates to repolarization abnormalities. These may be caused by several independent and/or dependent factors such as benign cardiac hypertrophy developing normally in athletes (athlete’s heart), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, increased sympathetic activity, genetic defects, seemingly harmless drugs, doping agents, food, and dietary supplements. These factors together can increase inhomogeneities in myocardial repolarization (“substrate”). In this case, an otherwise harmless extrasystole (“trigger”) occurring with unlucky timing may - although very seldomly - elicit fatal arrhythmias. Thus, effective prevention of sudden cardiac death may include new types of cost-effective cardiac electrophysiological screening methods (ECG or echocardiography) and, in case of a high level of suspicion, more costly genetic tests can be considered.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Labiolingual lesions - important symptoms of a rare endocrine syndrome]

SALLAI Ágnes, HOSSZÚ ÉVA, GERGICS Péter, RÁCZ Károly, FEKETE György

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Practical considerations in the state-of-the-art management of ankylosing spondylitis]

SZÁNTÓ Sándor, SZEKANECZ Zoltán

[Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation of the spinal and sacroiliacal joints, which causes chronic back pain and ultimately spinal stiffness, impaired motility, and deformity. Until the last decade, treatment mainly consisted of a combination of physical therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but recently tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors revolutionized therapy and improved clinical outcomes. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors effectively control inflammation of the sacroiliacal and spinal joints as shown by improved signs symptoms, and functions, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and reduction of acute phase reactants. Whether these drugs are capable of preventing radiographic progression and structural damage has, however, to be clarified in future studies. This review aims to highlight recent progress in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis, and to provide recommendations for its management.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Deep brain stimulation: a breakthrought in the treatment of movement disorders]

KOVÁCS Norbert, BALÁS István, LLUMIGUANO Carlos, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, NAGY Ferenc, JANSZKY József, DÓCZI Tamás, KOMOLY Sámuel

[Over the last 20 years, it became clear that deep brain stimulation is a breakthrough in the treatment of drug-resistant movement disorders. Stimulation acts by functional inhibition of certain pathologically hyperactive nuclei. Of advantage is that the patient himself can change stimulation parameters depending on his actual status, thus reaching optimal quality of life. This option has been available for years in Hungary, as well. It is a safe, effective and cost-effective alternative in the symptomatic management of drug-refractory Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and primary dystonia. Before surgery, a comprehensive investigation including clinical diagnosis, severity, surgery contraindications, and expected benefit has to be performed. Based on the results of international multicenter studies, bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation may improve - besides symptoms, such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and levodopa-induced side effects - also quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. In essential tremor, stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus is capable of spectacularly decreasing tremor. For primary dystonias, stimulation of the pallidum can improve drug-resistant symptoms and quality of life, and it substantially reduces social dependency and the amount of nursing required. In childhood dystonias, surgery may be performed at an age of as low as seven years.]

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