Lege Artis Medicinae

[Health economics in Hungary: great potential, missed opportunities?]

NÉMETH Bertalan

AUGUST 30, 2018

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2018;28(06-07)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Feeding and eating in infancy and early childhood part II. - Breastfeeding, complementary feeding and weaning in the Large-sample of the “For Healthy Offspring” project]

NÉMETH Tünde, VÁRADY Erzsébet, DANIS Ildikó, SCHEURING Noémi, SZABÓ László

[INTRODUCTION - Complementary feed-ing is the transitional period from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods, while breastfeeding is continued. It should be started, when breastmilk itself no longer meets the infant’s nutritional requirements, ideally at the age of around 6 months. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - In the Healthy Offspring project self reported questionnaires were received from 1133 parents of 0-3 year old children. Comple­mentary feeding practices and issues of weaning were analyzed. RESULTS - In our sample complementary feeding was started at the age of 5.5±1.8 months. 6% of infants younger than 4 months and about two third of infants at the age between 4 and 6 months were started on complementary feeding. 32% of the 7-12 month old infants were continued on breastfeeding. The proportion of breastfed infants and young children in the 12-24 and 25-36 month age group was 24% and 5.5% respectively. The daily feeding frequency of breastfed infants was 6.7±1.6. The infants and young children, who were breastfed along with complementary feeding were feeding 5.6±1.5 times/day. After completed weaning the range of feeding frequency was limited to 4.9±0.9 occasions/day. 60.4% of mothers regarded their feeding style on demand, while 39.6% on set schedule. 16% of mothers reported that their child had feeding difficulties. CONCLUSIONS - Complementary feeding indicators should be part of infant feeding data collection, such as time of introduction of complementary food, feeding frequency, food consistency, energy density of food and safe preparation. Responsive feeding is part of responsive parenting and should be promoted, along with continuing breastfeeding at least till one year of age, and for as long as mother and infant wish to continue. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Depression, anxiety and suicidal behavior. Recognition and care]


[Depression and anxiety disorders are major problems both in psychiatric and in general practice because of their frequency and recurring character. Owing to their common complications (suicide, suicide attempts, secondary alcoholism / drug disease, increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, loss of work, social isolation, etc.) they are the cause of significant individual, family and social burdens. In our paper we review the clinically revealable suicide risk and protective factors that can be observed in depression and anxiety disorders as well as the main aspects of the recognition and care of suicidal patients. With available medicines and non-pharmacological therapies, the vast majority of depressive and anxiety patients can be successfully treated and in most cases we can prevent suicidal behavior associated with these diseases. Besides psychiatrists general practitioners as well play a significant role in preventing suicidal behavior and in the recognition of suicide risk. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Mobbing and bullying among physicians - when colleagues become enemies]

KAPOCSI Erzsébet

[Workplace mistreatment, mobbing, bully-ing, or psychoterror has become a prioritised field of research in social sciences in the past two-three decades. Mobbing means more than a simple conflict situation between two individuals; it is a complex problem that could and should be investigated in various individual and organisational contexts. In spite of its large-scale theoretical and empirical research, the phenomenon still does not have a uniform definition; it is most commonly de-scribed via its social manifestations. Although the interpersonal constellation of mobbing is diverse, its trigger factors, stages and participants show similar patterns. The description and the evaluation of consequences is also uniform in the literature: workplace mobbing is accompanied by considerable health impairment, and it has severe psychosomatic and mental health effects on both the targeted individuals and the whole community. The latter group has to deal with poor performance, impaired morale and dissatisfaction. All these factors add up and lead to significant financial damage as well. The prevalence of mobbing is especially high in health care. Hierarchy, continuous overload, as well as emotional and physical stress all favour the development of mobbing. In turn, the professional-social culture of medicine that is based on traditions contributes to its acceptance, understatement and denial. The first time medical students have to face psychoterror is typically during their university years. The positive aspects of socialisation and finding their vocation cannot always compensate for the negative experiences. The model role of physicians, their behaviour towards colleagues and students can be protective, but it can also trigger further mobbing. Prevention is essential both at the organisational and individual level, and it requires complex measures whose effect will only be felt in the long term. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vision or reality? Can Hungary become hepatitis C virus free by 2030?]


[According to the WHO, there are 71 million people worldwide and 3 million people in the EU who are infected with hepatitis C virus. Most of these infections, however, remain undiagnosed and only 6-7% of them received antiviral therapy. In Hun-gary, there are an estimated 50.000 infections, out of these 20.000 are identified, the remaining 30.000 infections are outside the reach of the health care sector. Early diagnosis and therapy are of utmost importance as late diagnosis leads to se-vere liver insufficiency, hepatocellular carcinoma and multiple other extrahepatic organ impacts. In Hungary, second generation direct acting enzyme inhibitor antiviral medications with a recovery rate of almost 100% are available since 2015. Since 2018, all patients are treated with this type of therapy. Nevertheless, there are several remaining professional, organisational and health policy issues to solve. Firstly, Hungary should join the EU’s HCV elimination programme which aims to eradicate hepatitis C virus from Europe by 2030. Secondly, the frequency and efficiency of national screening should be increased. Furthermore, better information of the general population, inclusion of general practitioners and civil organisations, and introduction of the compulsory screening of high risk groups and health care professionals would be necessary. This review summarises the evolution of hepatitis C virus diagnostics and therapy over the past three decades, current best practice and the still outstanding tasks. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[How to diagnose idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Part 2]


[Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe irreversible lung disease with a progressive course. The disease onset is hard to discover due to the unspecific signs and symp­toms. It occurs mainly in elderly people. In the past decades its prevalence has increased continuously. Physical examination, restrictive pattern on lung function test with decreased diffusion capacity are characteristic features of the disease. Chest X-ray showing fibrotic pattern also points toward the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Differential diagnosis is based on high resolution komputertomográfy. Diag­nosis of IPF is based on the appearance of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern together with the lack of external risk factors and autoimmune or other diseases also known to cause this pattern seen on chest imaging. If no firm diagnosis can be built lung biopsy is required. Multidis­ciplinary teams from clinician, radiologist and pathologist are set in predefined centres that could provide care with novel antifibrotic drugs. These can slow disease progression and are in the frontline in the treatment of the disease. Further research is required to understand the pathomechanism and foster the discovery of further treatment options. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LAM 30: 1990–2020. Facing the mirror: Three decades of LAM, the Hungarian medicine and health care system]


Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]


[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]