Lege Artis Medicinae

[Green atherosclerosis]


JULY 27, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(06-07)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Melatonin, sleep and the circadian rhythm: theoretical considerations and their chronopharmacological applications ]


[The predictive homeostasis of living organisms is an anticipatory adaptation to rhythmical environmental changes. A good example for this is the circadian rhythm preparing the organism for the alternation of day and night. The circadian rhythm of melatonin production anticipates the timing and duration of nocturnal sleep of human subjects. It also induces a sleep-like stimulusprocessing mode of the brain and - in case of adequate environmental circumstances - a soporific and in part, a sleep-inducing effect. Specificities of melatonin effects on sleep are the reduction of slow-wave EEG activity, as well as the increase in seep EEG spindling and REM sleep time. Like other substances with hypnotic properties, melatonin decreases core body temperature, but has also a strong chronobiotic effect that is expressed as rapid and strong phase shifts of the circadian rhythm, depending on the time of day of melatonin administration. Because light acutely suppresses melatonin production, adequately timed light exposition, containing also low wavelength components, together with exogenous melatonin, could be useful in treating jet-lag syndrome and other circadian rhythm disorders.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Original and generic drugs: Research, efficacy, utilization, and financing ]


[Starting from the definition of medicinal drugs, this paper covers the terms of original, active principles, original and generic drugs, and their distinctive and identical properties. It also surveys the fundamentals of drug-marketing authorization, criteria of therapeutic and bioequivalence, pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic equivalence, and development possibilities of generic drugs.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Use of proton pump inhibitors in practice]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Off-label drug prescription in crossfire]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[What to do with tinnitus? - Differential diagnostical and therapeutical guideline]


All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Fatal outcome of cervical myelopathy caused by fibrocartilaginous embolism. Rare cause of spinal vascular damage

FOLYOVICH András, HAVAS László, VADÁSZ Gizella, FEHÉR Ágnes, VADASDI Károly, SZABÓ Zsolt, TÓTH Kornélia, BÉRES-MOLNÁR Anna Katlin, TOLDI Gergely

Fibrocartilaginous embolism is a rare cause of ischemic myelopathy. Authors report a case of a 39-year-old woman with progressive tetraparesis and severe autonomic dysfunction. Despite of the detailed examinations, the definite diagnosis was verified by autopsy. The patient was admitted because of progressive pain and numbness of the upper extremities and tetraparesis. Hypotonic muscles of the lower extremities with mild tetraparesis were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary lesion at the level of the cervical V-VII vertebral. Patient’s tetraparesis worsened gradually to plegia with urinary retention. Expansive, rapidly progressing multiple decubiti developed, which were resistant to therapy. In spite of the complex therapy, the patient died. No internal disease was found to explain the death by autopsy. Multiple subacute infarctions of the cervical myelon (involving the lateral columns as well) in the territory of the anterior spinal artery were verified by neuropathological examination. The occluded vessels were filled by a material containing cartilaginous cells, while signs of atherosclerosis or thrombosis were not present. Cartilaginous embolism of spinal arteries was diagnosed.

Clinical Neuroscience

Investigation of risk factors, topographic location and stroke mechanisms of unilateral isolated and posterior cerebral ARTERY thalamic infarcts

GÖKCAL Elif, SENGUL Yildizhan, USLU Ilgen Ferda

Aim - In this study, we aimed to examine the risk factors, topographic features and stroke mechanisms of acute ischemic unilateral infarcts of thalamus. Methods - Patient with isolated thalamic infarct and those with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarction who were admitted to our hospital between January 2014 and January 2017 with acute unilateral thalamic infarction (TI) were included in this study (isolated thalamic infarction/ isolated TI; thalamic and posterior cerebral artery infarction/PCA+TI). Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors of the patients were determined. Thalamic infarct areas were recorded topographically as anterior, posteromedial, ventrolateral, posterolateral, more than one area, and variant areas. Stroke mechanism was determined according to the criteria of „Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment” (TOAST). Patients with isolated TI and PCA TI were compared according to risk factors, stroke mechanism and infarct topography. Results - Forty-three patients with a mean age of 63.3 ± 14.5 years were included in the study. Twenty-eight patients (60.1%) were found to have isolated TI and the remaining 15 patients (34.9%) had PCA+TI. 32.1% of patients with isolated TI had sensory symptoms on presentation, and 60% of patients with PCA-TI had sensorimotor symptoms. The mean age, the mean score on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the mean frequency of atrial fibrillation were higher in PCA+TI patients than in isolated-TI patients (p: 0.04, p: 0.004, p: 0.02 respectively). 32.6% of the patients had ventrolateral, 30.2% had posteromedial involvement. Ventrolateral topography was seen in 46.7% of the PCA+TI patients, while posteromedial topography was seen in 39.3% of the isolated-TI patients. 53.6% of the isolated-TI had small vessel disease etiology, while 40% of the PCA+TI had cardioembolic etiology, and the other 40% had large artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion - Our study showed that the most ommon stroke mechanism in patients with thalamic infarction is the small vessel disease. Isolated TI and PCA+TI patients differ in terms of etiologic mechanism and infarct topography. Variant territorial involvement and multiple area involvements can be quite common in thalamic infarcts.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Relationship between patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke in a retrospective hospital-based study]


[Objective - After routine workup, 23-25% of ischemic strokes etiology remains unknown, i.e. cryptogenic. However, according to international results pathogenic patent foramen ovale (PFO) reveals in 25% of these cases. Aim of our retrospective study to prove the substantial etiological role of PFO-related stroke (PFO-RS) in cryptogenic strokes (CS), and to identify age related differences in stroke etiology. Methods - All new ischemic strokes of 2014-2015 were classified by ASCOD (Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac pathology, Other, Dissection) phenotyping. CS was defined when the etiology was unknown. With the help of special ultrasound techniques and RoPE (Risk of Paradoxical Embolism) score the portion of PFO-RS were determined in the examined CS population. Moreover, etiological distribution and differences between age groups (<40, 40-60, >60 years) were described. Results - During the examined period, 8.12% of 985 new ischemic strokes were categorized as CS. 41.38% of examined CS were found to be PFO-related. PFO-RS were considerably more frequent in the younger age groups than in the older age groups. The probability of appearance of PFO-RS were significantly higher in younger age than in case of age independency. Our results verify the substantial etiological role of PFO-RS in CS, and confirm the essential role of contrast enhanced functional transcranial Doppler in the routine diagnostic workup. Age related differences in stroke etiology were found to be statistically significant (p=0.000, df=14), in which small-vessel disease, cardiac pathology, dissection, other pathologies, CS and PFO-RS were contributed significantly. Based on our results, till in young age rare etiologies are typical, while in older age classical etiologies are mainly characteristic.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The effect of long-term antiepileptic monotherapy on vascular risk factors and atherosclerosis]

NOVÁK István

Hypertension and nephrology

[Prevalence and treatment of hypertension in patients with newly diagnosed familial hypercholesterolemia]

NÁDRÓ Bíborka, DIÓSZEGI Ágnes, KOVÁCS Beáta, PARAGH György, PÁLL Dénes, HARANGI Mariann

[Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited defect of cholesterol metabolism characterized by high plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease risk. Prevalence of hypertension in FH is not clarified, but its appearance is independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, optimal treatment has a major priority in this high-risk population. We aimed to investigate the lipid parameters and evaluate the presence of hypertension and its treatment characteristics in 86 newly diagnosed, untreated heterozygous FH patients (27 males, 59 females, mean age 53.6±13.4 years). We diagnosed FH by using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. The mean TC level was 8.49±1.7 mmol/l, the mean LDL-C level was 6.11±1.5 mmol/l, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 1.62±0.5 mmol/l, while the median lipoprotein (a) level was 301 mg/l. We diagnosed 33 FH patients (38.4%) with hypertension. Beta blockers were used in 23, ACE-inhibitors in 13, ARBs in 12, calcium channel blockers in 9, and HCT in 11 cases. 11 patients was treated with monotherapy, for 10 patients double, for 11 patients triple, while for 1 patient quadruple combined antihypertensive therapy was administered. Based on our results, hypertension might be underdiagnosed in this specific patient population. Neither the types nor the combination patterns of blood pressure lowering agents are in line with current guidelines. Up to date screening and treatment of hypertension should be worth considering in this extremely high risk population with enhanced atherosclerosis.]