Lege Artis Medicinae

[Genomic background of asthma]

SZALAI Csaba

DECEMBER 20, 2010

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2010;20(12)

[From a genomic point of view asthma is a multifactorial disease. It means that the susceptibility to the disease results from interaction of several (possibly several hundred) genes; in addition, the development of the disease requires environmental factors, as well. In the last years the hypothesis-free methods became widespread in the field of genomics investigating the genomic background of diseases. These methods do not need previous knowledge about the pathomechanism of the diseases and make it possible to discover new metabolic pathways. In this review all of the new asthma genes will be presented detected in the last few years by two such methods, by positional cloning and genome wide association study. The careful design of the studies, the large populations, the robust genomic and bioinformatic methods make it likely that these genes are really asthma genes playing important roles in the pathomechanism of the disease and are potential new therapeutic targets.]

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[The European Medicines Agency concluded that the marketing authorisation for all rosiglitazonecontaining medicines (Avandia, Avandamet, Avaglim) should be suspended across the European Union. The National Health Insurance Fund Administration in Hungary in a circular letter called the attention of GP’s to the necessity in getting the medical proposal (of an internist, endocrinologist or diabetologist) for substituting rosiglitazone to arrange a smooth modification of their treatment regimen. The review taking into account updated recommendations of the ADA-EASD and the Hungarian Diabetes Association summarises the potential drugs. The first line therapy of choice has to be starting with insulin. Pioglitazone might also be administered, with all known side effects of the glitazone family, e.g. congestive heart failure and bone fractures. Further alternatives are choosing the newer drugs of the incretin principle: the incretin mimetics (exenatid, liraglutid) and the incretin enhancers (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin). Beside their favourable profile of effect they do not have longterm follow up outcome studies and evidences for cardiovascular safety.]

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TAKÁCS Tamás

[Acute pancreatitis requires various diagnostic and treatment procedures. The clinical picture of acute pancreatitis is diverse, ranging from mild abdominal pain or dyspepsia to severe, lifethreatening multiorgan failure or sepsis. Most cases of pancreatitis result in a mild/edematous inflammation of the pancreas, whereas the remaining 15-20 percent results in severe necrotising pancreatitis with a mortality rate as high as 10-30 percent, although imaging diagnostics, operative endoscopy and intensive internal and surgical therapy have improved significantly in the past few years. Quick and accurate diagnosis of the disease is required for early therapeutic intervention. For example, we know that in cases of biliary acute pancreatitis an early (within 24-48 hours following the onset of symptoms) endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction significantly improve the prognosis of the disaese. It is also important to introduce an adequate perfusion/rehydration therapy and a simultaneous enteral feeding introduced as soon as possible to avoid the superinfection of the pancreatic necrosis. Therefore, when reviewing the epidemiological characteristics, pathophysiology, up-to-date diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of the disease, we emphasise early interventions. We also highlight the importance of patient care and follow-up checks after an incident of acute pancreatitis.]

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