Lege Artis Medicinae

[Fate and Symbol ]

NAGY Zsuzsanna

JULY 20, 2015

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2015;25(06-07)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Incisional hernia and diabetes. Could we improve the results?]

MARTIS Gábor, DAMJANOVICH László

[GOALS - Diabetes mellitus is considered as a risk factor concerning surgical interventions as well. Connection between incisional abdominal hernias and diabetes mellitus were investigated in this prospective four years study. The primary aim was to evaluate the proportion of recurrencies, the secondary aim was determining the ratio of surgical complications in the investigated two groups (Group I: non diabetic, group II: diabetic patients). PATIENTS AND METHOD - The results of the incisional and abdominal hernia operations performed between 01. 01. 2011. and 31. 12. 2014. were investigated. Data for study was gained from the consecutively and obligatorily registered database of the authors’ institution. The type of reconstruction, elective or acute character of surgery, primary or recidive operation, the patients’ body mass index (BMI), as well as among complications the seroma and fistula formations, the reoperations and postoperative infections were registered. Patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus were not differentiated. The HgbA1c was investigated separately in elective and acute operations. RESULTS - There were 56 (8.94%) diabetic patients (39 male, 17 women, avr. age 54.3 years) out of all 626 patients operated on incisional and/or abdominals wall hernias. Total recurrency rate was 19.6% during the average 32 months (6-66 months) follow-up period. The recurrency rate in diabetic patients was 50.0% (48.7% in women, 52.9% in men). Non-diabetic patients’ recurrency ratio were only 8.3% (11.2% and 5.4% in men and women, respectively). Median BMI is significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in those of non diabetics (35.4kg/m2 vs 27.75kg/2). Ratio of the elective and acute operations were 69.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The most frequently used operations technique was the direct transversal abdominal wall suture (14.3%) and the direct suture plus synthetic mesh implantation (64.3%). Eleven (19.7%) diabetic patients with incisional hernia were reconstructed with a so-called autologous tension free dermal flap. In 2 (18.2%) out of 11 patients were registered recurrency. Seroma and haematoma formation was occured in four patient (36.4%) and in one (9.1%), respectively after dermal flap reconstructions. Mean recurrency time after surgery in non-diabetic and in diabetic patients was 12.3 months and 9.2 months, respectively. The average HgbA1c level was significantly higher (8.1% in electively operated patients than in those acutly operated ones (9.8%). There were two lethal (0.36%) postoperative complications in this study. CONCLUSION - Considering the recurrency ratio of the incisional hernias and the postoperative complications, diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor compared the data to non-diabetic patients. Seroma and haematoma formations, postoperative complications ratio are significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in those of non-diabetic. Appearance of recurrencies require significantly shorter time in patients with diabetes mellitus The rate of recidive and postoperative complication after the autolog, dermal, traction free abdominal wall reconstructions made by authors was lower, than in abdominal hernias reconstructed in other ways (direct suture, direct suture plus xenograft).]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Board Games in Medical Training ]

KOLLÁR János

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis with inhaled tobramycin]

NAGY Béla, HOLICS Klára

[BACKGROUND - Intermittent or chronic pulmonary infections caused by Pseudo­monas aeruginosa (Pa) deteriorate clinical status and worsen lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The prognosis of the disease and life expectancy of patients are substantially dependent on lung infections and inflammation; therefore the primary goal of the treatment is the early termination of the infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Efficacy of tobramycin (TOBI® 300 mg/5 mL solution for inhalation, henceforth TOBI®) inhalation in Pa pulmonary infections was studied in a non-interventional, observational, open-label, single-arm trial in subjects with CF. Fifty-three patients aged six to 31 years (averaged 15.8 years) were enrolled into the study. Three treatment cycles of TOBI® inhalation (28 days on drug, 28 days off drug) plus 6 months observational period were evaluated. Primary endpoint was changing in the predictive values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) compared to the initial values after three cycles of the treatment. Secondary endpoints were changing in the FEV1 predictive values at the end of the complete study compared to the initial values; ratios of patients with decreased density of originally Pa-positive result of sputum culture; as well as safety and tolerability of the TOBI® treatment. RESULTS - FEV1 and FEV1% results were unchanged comparing to the initial values at the end of the treatment and after the observational period in the whole study population. However, sputum cultures became negative in 47.2% of all subjects as a result of the treatment, and the FEV1 values were gradually increased in these patients: after the third treatment cycle plus 160 mL, and at the end of the study plus 110 mL comparing to the initial values. Similar considerable increase was detected in the predictive FEV1% in this sub-group: after the first cycle plus 5.2%, at the end of third cycle plus 7%, after the observational period above 3.8% considering the starting results. CONCLUSIONS - TOBI® inhalation proved to be effective in improvement of lung function results and eradication of infection in our patients with Pa positive CF. The treatment was well tolerated and safe.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Physician and Science 5. – Personalness and Science ]

BÁNFALVI Attila

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Efficacy of maximal dose rosuvastatin therapy in significant carotis stenosis]

KONCSOS Péter

[The main role of atherogenic dyslipidemia is known for decades. Several studies have proven the beneficial effect of statin therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The following case report demonstrates the efficacy of high dose statin therapy regarding lipid goals and clinical signs. The presented 65 year-old female patient had a history of dyslipidemia and hypertension for over 15 years and positive cardiovascular family history. Carotid ultrasound examination showed 15-20% bilateral stenosis in 2008 whereas four years later, control ultrasound showed significant progression with 65% left-sided asymptomatic stenosis. At this time, LDL-cholesterol level was above the target; we managed to reach the recommended level with high-dose statin treatment in combination therapy with ezetimibe. Besides the lipid levels, regression of the carotid stenosis could be observed without statin-associated side effects.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Hypertension and nephrology

[About the care of patients with hyperuricaemia and gout]

[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]