Lege Artis Medicinae

[Experience of the ISPOR Europe 2018 Health Economics Conference]


JULY 20, 2019

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2019;29(06-07)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33616/lam.29.033



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Role of the Association of Hungarian Medical Societies (MOTESZ) in the Fight Against Diabetes]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Good, the Bad and the Ugly ]


[Reading the title most of us (but not everyone) can recall from our memories the classic heroes of the movie of Sergio Leone and we can almost hear (or not?) the melody of Ennio Morricone. This sentence is full of strangeness, isn’t it? However it’s hardly at all sure that everyone had seen the movie (indeed certainly not) and the catching music is maybe elusive. Like or not we are related to classics of lipidology, as well. Most of the readers of this review of the three clinicians know much (but not everything!) of these topics but probably for some of them this paper will arise their further interest. We are going to separate the “inseparable”, only together functioning whole thing in order to build a model in our thinking regarding its operation. This is what we do with the scientific cognition. We are making models, simplifying indeed… (sometimes erroneously) proclaiming. Let’s throw out our (or at least try to do it) the stereotypes living inside us. Let’s talk about the “always” good HDL-cholesterol, the bad LDL-cholesterol and the ugly (or cruel) triglyceride, actually (and now the analogy is lost of the three key players of the classic western movie) about the other faces of the together ugly and bad lipoprotein(a) according to a lot of opinions! As everything is connected with everything in the human body and nothing is accidental - nothing can be only good, bad or ugly nor the Good, the Bad and the Ugly yet.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Reorganization of the Academic Research Network as Intended by the Government would be a Huge Loss]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[How many cardiovascular events can be avoided by a lipid lowering therapy based on preventive guidelines?]

MÁRK László

[The lipid lowering therapy became one of the most important elements in the cardiovascular prevention, yet it is not appropriately evaluated neither by the doctors, nor by the patients. The lipid goal attainment should to be improved according to Hungarian and international data. Using a recommendation guided lipid lowering therapy the most benefit can be expected in the patients at very high risk who alrea­dy had a cardiovascular event, where the LDL-cholesterol goal is 1.8 mmol/L. Calculating upon the data of 170000 patients of Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration a decrease of LDL-cholesterol level from 2.5 mmol/L to 1.8 in 100 patients in 10 years would avoid 3 myocardial infarctions, strokes or death, lowering that from 3.5 mmol/L to the goal would prevent these 3 events within 5 years. Using the traditional LDL-cholesterol lowering medication, high dose statin and ezetimibe, if the attitude of doctors and the compliance of patients would be ideal, the 1.8 mmol/L goal attainment rate would be over 80%. Unfortunately, up to now the reimbursed administration of ezetimibe in Hungary is still bound to a specialist’s recommendation, adding it to any dose of any statin an additional 20% LDL-cholesterol can be expected. The reimbursed administration of PCSK9-inhibitors is possible only based on a special request to National Health Insurance Fund. To achieve a better national cardiovascular morbidity and mortality the attitude of the doctors and the adherence of the patients to the lipid lowering therapy should be improved (it’s the goal of the present paper as well).]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Empirical examination of the persistence value among the students studying health-care at the beginning of student professionalization]

DINYÁNÉ Szabó Mariann, PUSZTAI Gabriella

[INTRODUCTION – Students in healthcare studies can help maintain the mental base and maintain their health if the lecturers know the degree of student persistence. When entering higher education, it is possible to measure the pre-university experience. Persistence determines the student's relationship to learning and can be a predictor of learning success. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS – A questionnaire study (N = 200) of the 1st year student (N = 200) of the Health Care Organization (BSc) of the University of Debrecen and Semmelweis University. For the continuous Persistence Variable a descriptive statistical method was used, an independent two-sample t-test was used for comparison between groups, and Hedges-g was used to express the effect size. We used the GLM (General Linear Model) model for fitting the persistence model. By means of factor analysis, we constructed factors from the significant predictor variables of the GLM model, which helped us assessing students' chances of learning. To quantify the strength of evidence against null hypothesis P < 0.05 (5% significance) was chosen as a standard level for concluding that there is evidence against the hypothesis tested. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). RESULTS – The persistence factor loadings can be divided into three types: high, medium and low. High persistence rearranges student preferences, low interest persistence, minimal interest in academic engagement. In the case of middle-ranking people, the importance of volunteering (life-experience) and friendship is paramount. CONCLUSIONS – The results indicate that at the beginning of the student life there is a willingness, diligence, acceptance of academic values, interest or lack of interest in future success studies. During the stu­dies, these features can be monitored and the necessary interventions can be made in time.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Interdisciplinary approach of vestibular system impairment]


[In the first part of this review the definition of vertigo/dizziness was discussed. The major difference between the two signs is the exsistence of the direction, which is specific for vertigo. Dizziness is a frequent complaint in the clinical practice. Its frequency is increasing with advance of age, to intimate the play of declining cognitive process in the pathogenesis of its. The popular health significance of vertigo is in the rowing number of the patients. The onset of the most cases with acute vertigo appears between secundums and minutes so the patients will be provided in circumstances of emergency department. First of all three form schould be take into account: neuronitis vestibularis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere syndrome. Without tipical periferal signs of vertigo, central cause should be searched, principally stroke (lysis possibility). The differential diagnose of the different dizzeness/vertigo forms according to the elapsed time of the onset or congenital and acquired nystagmus was created in tables. The recommendations of the therapy of acute and chronic dizziness/ vertigo syndroms are, lack of results of evidence based trials doubtful. The more often used drugs based on clinical trials are discussed as vinpocetine, betahistine and piracetam. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that the last molecule is eligible to use both in periferal and central type of vertigo syndroms.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Investigation of risk factors, topographic location and stroke mechanisms of unilateral isolated and posterior cerebral ARTERY thalamic infarcts

GÖKCAL Elif, SENGUL Yildizhan, USLU Ilgen Ferda

Aim - In this study, we aimed to examine the risk factors, topographic features and stroke mechanisms of acute ischemic unilateral infarcts of thalamus. Methods - Patient with isolated thalamic infarct and those with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarction who were admitted to our hospital between January 2014 and January 2017 with acute unilateral thalamic infarction (TI) were included in this study (isolated thalamic infarction/ isolated TI; thalamic and posterior cerebral artery infarction/PCA+TI). Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors of the patients were determined. Thalamic infarct areas were recorded topographically as anterior, posteromedial, ventrolateral, posterolateral, more than one area, and variant areas. Stroke mechanism was determined according to the criteria of „Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment” (TOAST). Patients with isolated TI and PCA TI were compared according to risk factors, stroke mechanism and infarct topography. Results - Forty-three patients with a mean age of 63.3 ± 14.5 years were included in the study. Twenty-eight patients (60.1%) were found to have isolated TI and the remaining 15 patients (34.9%) had PCA+TI. 32.1% of patients with isolated TI had sensory symptoms on presentation, and 60% of patients with PCA-TI had sensorimotor symptoms. The mean age, the mean score on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the mean frequency of atrial fibrillation were higher in PCA+TI patients than in isolated-TI patients (p: 0.04, p: 0.004, p: 0.02 respectively). 32.6% of the patients had ventrolateral, 30.2% had posteromedial involvement. Ventrolateral topography was seen in 46.7% of the PCA+TI patients, while posteromedial topography was seen in 39.3% of the isolated-TI patients. 53.6% of the isolated-TI had small vessel disease etiology, while 40% of the PCA+TI had cardioembolic etiology, and the other 40% had large artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion - Our study showed that the most ommon stroke mechanism in patients with thalamic infarction is the small vessel disease. Isolated TI and PCA+TI patients differ in terms of etiologic mechanism and infarct topography. Variant territorial involvement and multiple area involvements can be quite common in thalamic infarcts.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]


[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]