Lege Artis Medicinae

[Dürer on human proportions]


NOVEMBER 30, 1994

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1994;4(11)

[It is a little known fact that the greatest German painter, Albrecht Dürer, was also a literary and theoretical artist. This can be explained in part by the fact that for a long time art history itself showed no particular interest in the master's intellectual and creative activity, and on the other hand, the Dürer monographs published in Hungarian, if they quoted from his literary works at all, almost exclusively highlighted the passage of the "Family Chronicle" that referred to the family's Hungarian origins. ]



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Lege Artis Medicinae

[The use of in situ hybridization in basic biomedical research and clinical medicine]


[The essential purpose of in situ hybridization is the histochemical and/or autoradiographic detection of specific nucleic acid sequences in cells, tissues or chromosomes. The method is based on the use of artificially manufactured DNA or RNA fragments which are label led with isotope, enzymes, biotin or digoxigenin. The specific attachment of these labelled single-stranded nucleic acid probes to intra nuclear or intracytoplasmic nucleic acids can be used for the study of gene expression, for the establishment of viral infections, for the diagnosis of specific tumours and for the detection of hereditary diseases and chromosomal aberrations. The present review discusses the molecular basis of the method, the possibilities of labelling and detection and various other applications.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of nutrition in the etiology and prevention of dental caries]


[Nutritional factors play an important role in the development of both dental caries and periodontal diseases. Dental caries is a multi factorial disease. The changes in the composition and accumulation of dental plaque, caused by physical and chemical components of the diet, are influenced by quantitative, qualitative and frequency factors of carbohydrate consumption. In the course of bacterial degradation of consumed sugars, acids are formed on the tooth by inherent dental plaque monosaccharides, and enamel demineralization occurs. Due to the multifactorial etiology of dental caries, prevention is a complex activity. In addition to fluoride prevention, appropriate oral hygiene measures, directives for a healthy diet, changes in life-style and behaviour are also important factors. For the elimination of the deleterious influence of carbohydrates, the decrease of between-meal snacks, and the use of non-acidogenic sugar substitutes (xylitol) is recommended, which might contribute to a decrease in the high caries prevalence rates in Hungary. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Activated protein c response: a novel disorder causing thrombophilia]

PÁL András, SAS Géza, HAYNAL Imre, VAJDA Zoltán, KUNCZ Gabriella, MOHAMED A. Lateiwish, RÓNA Tas Ágnes

[In 1993 Dahlbäck described the so-called in vitro activated protein C response phenomena, according to which, the addition of activated protein C to citrated plasma samples prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin times. It was hypothesised that this phenomenon is the result of the action of a new protein C cofactor, and in 1994, Dahlbäck demonstrated that this phenomenon is linked to variations of the factor V, which surprisingly serves as a cofactor for protein C. In this study, forty-one highly selected thrombophilic patients and forty controls were investigated for the activated protein C response phenomenon. The response to activated protein C was expressed as the ratio of two activated partial thromboplastin times, the first in the presence of and the second in the absence of activated protein C. Eighteen patients demonstrated a decreased response, i. e. the ratio of the times was below 2.0 (mean 1.3). The average of the entire group was 1.86. The average ratio of the control group was 3.12, and there were 2 persons with ratios below 2.0. The results of this study correspond with the data in the literature. This newly recognised phenomenon may be responsible for the majority of the formerly unrecognised biochemical defects leading to the clinical picture of thrombophilia. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Treatment for simplex glaucoma, eye drops or early surgery?]


[Primary open-angle glaucoma (simplex) occurs in -0.5-2% of the European population over 40 years of age and is one of the most common causes of blindness in countries with good public health. The visual field and visual impairment that has already developed with glaucoma is irreversible, so diagnosing the disease at an early stage and starting treatment at an early stage is a prerequisite for saving sight. Unfortunately, initiating treatment does not mean that retinal ganglion cell death and the resulting visual field loss will disappear. Although its rate slows down, progression can be detected in a significant proportion of eyes even with treatment. This is why the focus of glaucoma research today is to analyse the long-term efficacy of treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


[MOTESZ is admitted to the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS); Hungarian-French medical education seminar; Smoking in the third trimester hinders foetal development; In Canada, cigarettes will only be sold in plain packaging in the future; Smoking during pregnancy can cause asthma in the unborn child; Smoking or health centre in NEVI; Smoking ban has not reduced restaurant sales in the US; Smoking during pregnancy can cause limb developmental abnormalities in the foetus; Dr. Zoltán Ajkay's five studies on health insurance reform; Diagnostic centre in Pécs; International meeting in Balatonszárszó; New information centre in Budapest;]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[History of vaccine production in Hungary ]


[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Great Acceleration]

BRYS Zoltán

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Comparative analysis of the full and shortened versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory]

ÁDÁM Szilvia, DOMBRÁDI Viktor, MÉSZÁROS Veronika, BÁNYAI Gábor, NISTOR Anikó, BÍRÓ Klára

[Background – The two free-to-use versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) have been increasingly utilised to assess the prevalence of burnout among human service workers. The OLBI has been developed to overcome some of the psychometric and conceptual limitations of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the gold standard of burnout measures. There is a lack of data on the structural validity of the Mini Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory in Hungary. Purpose – To assess the structural validity of the Hungarian versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and the Mini-Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Methods – We enrolled 564 participants (196 healthcare workers, 104 nurses and 264 clinicians) in three cross-sectional surveys. In our analysis we assessed the construct validity of the instruments using confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency using coefficient Cronbach’s α. Results – We confirmed the two-dimensional structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of the Mini-Oldenburg Inventory and a shortened version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Internal consistency coefficient confirmed the reliability of the instruments. The burnout appeared more than a 50 percent of the participants in every subsample. The prevalence of exhaustion was above 54.5% in each of the subsamples and the proportion of disengaged clinicians was particularly high (92%). Conclusions – Our findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Hungarian versions of the Mini-Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and a shortened version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory in the assessment of burnout among clinicians and nurses in Hungary.]