Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnostics of HER-2]

KÁLMÁN Endre

JULY 14, 2008

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2008;18(06-07)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Prostate-specific antigen: a blessing or a curse?]

ROMICS Imre

Lege Artis Medicinae

[IMMUNE-MEDIATED NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS]

CSÉPÁNY Tünde

[Multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis and chronic inflammatory neuropathies share the common feature of chronic course with potential development of disability due to the damage caused by immunological processes. Early detection and precise diagnosis is very important, because most patients respond well to proper immunomodulatory treatment. The diagnosis requires extensive knowledge of the disease and is based on the clinical symptoms recognised by the GP, as well as on complex assessment of the results of special neurophysiological, radiological and laboratory examinations. The present paper reviews the major immune-mediated neurological disorders and discusses their targeted immunological treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thrombosis Prevention after Previous Placental Thrombosis]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[SPONTANEOUS RUPTURE OF THE SPLEEN IN PULMONARY FIBROSIS]

SZOLNOKI Erzsébet, DEZSŐ Balázs, SZILASI Mária

[INTRODUCTION - Splenic peliosis is a pathological entity; it is only mentioned in case reports in the literature. CASE REPORT - A 61-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with effort dyspnoe that was subsequently found to be due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by histological examination. During steroid therapy, a spontaneous splenic rupture developed, which the patient fortunately survived. There was no need for splenectomy, but the clinical course suggested splenic peliosis. CONCLUSION - In this case, splenic rupture was associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a constellation that has not yet been reported. Nevertheless, it was an isolated rupture, with no similar haemorrhagic lesion of other parenchymal organs. In view of the literature data, beside primary disease steroid therapy and the coexisting diabetes may also have played a role in the development of the spontaneous splenic rupture.]

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[Errors and complications from the surgeon’s point of view]

GAÁL Csaba

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Simultaneous subdural, subarachnoideal and intracerebral haemorrhage after rupture of a peripheral middle cerebral artery aneurysm

BÉRES-MOLNÁR Anna Katalin, FOLYOVICH András, SZLOBODA Péter, SZENDREY-KISS Zsolt, BERECZKI Dániel, BAKOS Mária, VÁRALLYAY György, SZABÓ Huba, NYÁRI István

The cause of intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage is different, and the simultaneous appearance in the same case is extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient with a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the middle cerebral artery, with a concomitant subdural and intracerebral haemorrhage, and a subsequent secondary brainstem (Duret) haemorrhage. The 59-year-old woman had hypertension and diabetes in her medical history. She experienced anomic aphasia and left-sided headache starting one day before admission. She had no trauma. A few minutes after admission she suddenly became comatose, her breathing became superficial. Non-contrast CT revealed left sided fronto-parietal subdural and subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage, and bleeding was also observed in the right pontine region. The patient had leucocytosis and hyperglycemia but normal hemostasis. After the subdural haemorrhage had been evacuated, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. Sepsis developed. Echocardiography did not detect endocarditis. Neurological status, vigilance gradually improved. The rehabilitation process was interrupted by epileptic status. Control CT and CT angiography proved an aneurysm in the peripheral part of the left middle cerebral artery, which was later clipped. Histolo­gical examination excluded mycotic etiology of the aneu­rysm and “normal aneurysm wall” was described. The brain stem haemorrhage – Duret bleeding – was presumably caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure due to the supratentorial space occupying process and consequential trans-tentorial herniation. This case is a rarity, as the patient not only survived, but lives an active life with some residual symptoms.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Sturge Weber type 3 presenting with occipital epileptic seizure: case report ]

SERİNDAĞ Cansu Helin, EREN Fulya, KARAHAN Gökçen Muazzez, GUL Gunay, SELCUK Hakan, KARA Batuhan, SOYSAL Aysun

[Sturge Weber syndrome is the third most common neurocutaneous syndrome after neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Three distinct types were identified. Type 3 with leptomeningeal involvement alone is the rarest among other types. The reported case is a 21-years-old female patient without any known chronic disease. She admitted to the emergency department after visual symptoms and headache, followed by generalized tonic clonic seizure. EEG of the patient showed left occipital seizure activity. The contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed left occipital leptomeningeal angioma. Digital substraction angiography (DSA) revealed minimal blushed contrast enhancement on late venous phase and lack of superficial cortical veins. Her focal seizures were under control with levatiracetam and lacosamide treatment. The reported case is unique because of the late onset presentation with focal seizure without mental retardation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

A case with reversible neurotoxicity induced by metronidazole

EREN Fulya, ALDAN Ali Mehmet, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, GUL Gunay, SELCUK Hatem Hakan, SOYSAL Aysun

Background - Metronidazole is a synthetic antibiotic, which has been commonly used for protozoal and anaerobic infections. It rarely causes dose - and duration - unrelated reversible neurotoxicity. It can induce hyperintense T2/FLAIR MRI lesions in several areas of the brain. Although the clinical status is catastrophic, it is completely reversible after discontinuation of the medicine. Case report - 36-year-old female patient who had recent brain abscess history was under treatment of metronidazole for 40 days. She admitted to Emergency Department with newly onset myalgia, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and cerebellar signs. She had nystagmus in all directions of gaze, ataxia and incompetence in tandem walk. Bilateral hyperintense lesions in splenium of corpus callosum, mesencephalon and dentate nuclei were detected in T2/FLAIR MRI. Although lumbar puncture analysis was normal, her lesions were thought to be related to activation of the brain abscess and metronidazole was started to be given by intravenous way instead of oral. As lesions got bigger and clinical status got worse, metronidazole was stopped. After discontinuation of metronidazole, we detected a dramatic improvement in patient’s clinical status and MRI lesions reduced. Conclusion - Although metronidazole induced neurotoxicity is a very rare complication of the treatment, clinicians should be aware of this entity because its adverse effects are completely reversible after discontinuation of the treatment.

Clinical Neuroscience

[LADA type diabetes, celiac diasease, cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome. A rare association of autoimmune disorders]

SOÓS Zsuzsanna, SALAMON Mónika, ERDEI Katalin, KASZÁS Nóra, FOLYOVICH András, SZŰCS Anna, BARCS Gábor, ARÁNYI Zsuzsanna, SKALICZKI József, VADASDI Károly, WINKLER Gábor

[Celiac disease - in its typical form - is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy with typical clinical symptoms that develops against gliadin content of cereal grains, and is often associated with other autoimmune diseases. In cases of atypical manifestation classic symptoms may be absent or mild, and extra-intestinal symptoms or associated syndromes dominate clinical picture. The authors present a longitudinal follow-up of such a case. A 63-years old woman was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of 19, and with progressive limb ataxia at the age of 36, which was initially thought to be caused by cerebellar atrophy, later probably by stiff person syndrome. At the age 59, her diabetes mellitus manifested with type 2 diabetic phenotype, but based on GAD positivity later was reclassified as type 1 diabetes. Only the last check-up discovered the celiac disease, retrospectively explaining the entire disease course and neurological symptoms. By presenting this case, the authors would like to draw attention to the fact that one should think of the possibility of celiac disease when cerebellar ataxia, progressive neurological symptoms and diabetes are present at the same time. An early diagnosis may help to delay the progression of disease and help better treatment.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Patient with a spontaneously evolving carotid cavernous fistula in the emergency department

SZABÓ István, ZAG Levente, CSONTOS Amarilla, TAKÁCS F. Irma, SZIKORA István

Background - Approximately 2% of patients admitted to the emergency department present with headache, which is often associated with vomiting, ocular pain, and earache. In rare cases, the presence of an abnormal communication between a cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system that creates a carotid cavernous fistula is the main cause of these symptoms. Case presentation - A 32-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with unilateral headache associated with earache on the same side, and pulsating tinnitus. On examination, we observed unusual appearance of our patient (small stature, unusually visible skin, lobeless ears). In the first 5 hours of our observation no neurological symptoms had been present, but after a severe vomiting, exophthalmos, subconjunctival suffusion and moderate ptosis developed. First, regarding the initial general symptoms, otorhinolaryngologist assessed the patient, and did not find any abnormality. Further, we ordered computed tomography and consulted a neurologist. Despite of the negative results we continued the observation because her symptoms did not improve. After appearance of neurological symp-toms, carotid cavernous fistula was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging and ophthalmologist consultation verified the diagnosis. For therapy, she was transferred to interventional neuroradiology. Because of the unusual appearance and carotic cavernous fistula, we ordered genetic examination. This indicated the presence of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in the background. The first major manifestation of the syndrome was observed at our department. Conclusions - Carotid cavernous fistula is an uncommon diagnosis in the emergency department; however, the early recognition of symptoms and early treatment can prevent further consequences of this potentially severe condition.