Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnostic informativeness of a finding]

VOKÓ Zoltán

NOVEMBER 20, 2010

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2010;20(11)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Renal care - possibilities of complex organ protection]

WAGNER Gyula, AMMA Zoltán, JUHÁSZ László, KULCSÁR Katalin

[The authors analyse data of the last ten years of renal care. According to the principles of care they prefer to have contact at least once to all patients with an estimated clearance less than 60 ml/min, and on a regular basis to those with less than 30 ml/min. Their fundamental ambition is to develop the most favourable therapy for the patients together with general practitioners and with representatives of other specialities. The most important aim is to reduce cardio-renal morbidity and mortality. Early detection and effective treatment of target organ damage are the tools for this. It is clear from their previous work that it was not successful in the first period of care (2000-2005) especially in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Before the initiation of renal replacement therapy only half of the patients have been seen by a nephrologist. One-year-mortality after initiating dialysis was significant among patients who did not receive such care. Their medication was also not up-to-date. Through regular continuing medical education for general practitioners and in close collaboration with diabetologist colleagues the number of patients taken care of has doubled. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with hypertension or diabetes as an underlying disease among the patients receiving renal care increased to 68%. These findings may contribute to that their patients receive effective treatment taking the actual therapeutic recommendations into account. Hopefully it will be apparent in the hard end-points at the time of the analysis of the second period.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Waiting for a saviour - to the margin of a working paper]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Clinical outcome 16 years after the IFN-beta-1b trial]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Headache in everyday medical practice]


[Headache is one of the most common complaints in clinical practice. The International Headache Society’s current classification distinguishes two major categories of headache: primary and secondary (symptomatic) headache types. The former types, which account for the majority of headaches, are caused by a functional disorder in a structurally intact nervous system and are characterised by stereotypical attacks that resolve - in most cases - spontaneously after a certain period, the duration of which is characteristic for each headache type. The diagnosis of primary headaches is based on a detailed history of the attacks and negative results on a neurological examination. At the first presentation of the patient, it should be determined whether a potentially serious or life-threatening condition might be present, whether the type of the patient’s headache can be ascertained according to the IHS’s criteria, and what kind of examinations are needed to establish the correct diagnosis. A detailed history is the cornerstone of the diagnosis of primary headaches and it cannot be substituted by instrumental examinations. The use of imaging and other examination methods is necessary for the diagnosis of secondary headaches, but if the patient’s history and the results of the neurological investigation are fully consistent with a primary headache type, instrumental examinations are unlikely to provide any additional information. Although establishing the correct diagnosis is often time-consuming, it is necessary for the efficient treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Central nervous system hemorrhage in Wegener’s granulomatosis]

SZABOLCSI Orsolya, SZÁNTÓ Antónia, ZEHER Margit

[In our case a 41-year-old man with following symptoms: non-productive coughing, fever, difficulty in breathing and weight loss was examined in February 2007, and on the basis of chest X-ray, CT and bronchoscopy, the possibility of neoplasm or tuberculosis cropped up. After the applied therapy (steroid, antibiotics, tuberculostatic drugs) the symptoms became more severe, i.e. hematuria and epistaxis were manifested. A tissue biopsy was carried out during bronchoscopy and the histological examination revealed granulomatous reaction. Meanwhile, the presence of c-ANCA was proved, and Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) was diagnosed. In March 2007, sudden somnolence and left side hemiplegia developed, and a large haemorrhage was recognised on CT scan in the right fronto-temporal region, with regard to the haemorrhage, the patient had to undergo a neurosurgical operation. We started to treat him in April 2007 by intravenous steroid and 600 mg of cyclophosphamide (Cyc), and he regained the ability to walk again. In October 2007, the Cyc treatment was terminated, and we administered a maintenance therapy with methotrexat. During the regular medical check-up, a chest X-ray indicated a second attack in March 2008, which was confirmed by the chest CT, the clinical symptoms, increased anti-PR3 levels and c-ANCA positivity as well. The flair of the disease was established. Consequently, in April 2008 we decided on plasmapheresis therapy synchronised with Cyc. After that, we started an azathioprine maintenance therapy and he got rid of all the activation symptoms. We can say that with the adequate therapy started in good time and with the regular medical check up of the patient a good result can be achieved. It is true even in the case of WG disease associated by severe complication, for example central nervous hemorrhage.]

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Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Life threatening rare lymphomas presenting as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: a diagnostic challenge

TOLVAJ Balázs, HAHN Katalin, NAGY Zsuzsanna, VADVÁRI Árpád, CSOMOR Judit, GELPI Ellen, ILLÉS Zsolt, GARZULY Ferenc

Background and aims – Description of two cases of rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma and secondary T-cell lymphoma diagnosed postmortem, that manifested clinically as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). We discuss causes of diagnostic difficulties, deceptive radiological and histological investigations, and outline diagnostic procedures based on our and previously reported cases. Case reports – Our first case, a 48-year-old female was admitted to the neurological department due to paraparesis. MRI suggested LETM, but the treatments were ineffective. She died after four weeks because of pneumonia and untreatable polyserositis. Pathological examination revealed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Our second case, a 61-year-old man presented with headache and paraparesis. MRI showed small bitemporal lesions and lesions suggesting LETM. Diagnostic investigations were unsuccessful, including tests for possible lymphoma (CSF flow cytometry and muscle biopsy for suspected IVL). Chest CT showed focal inflammation in a small area of the lung, and adrenal adenoma. Brain biopsy sample from the affected temporal area suggested T-cell mediated lymphocytic (paraneoplastic or viral) meningoencephalitis and excluded diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The symptoms worsened, and the patient died in the sixth week of disease. The pathological examination of the presumed adenoma in the adrenal gland, the pancreatic tail and the lung lesions revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, as did the brain and spinal cord lesions. Even at histological examination, the T-cell lymphoma had the misleading appearance of inflammatory condition as did the MRI. Conclusion – Lymphoma can manifest as LETM. In cases of etiologically unclear atypical LETM in patients older than 40 years, a random skin biopsy (with subcutaneous adipose tissue) from the thigh and from the abdomen is strongly recommended as soon as possible. This may detect IVL and provide the possibility of prompt chemotherapy. In case of suspicion of lymphoma, parallel examination of the CSF by flow cytometry is also recommended. If skin biopsy is negative but lymphoma suspicion remains high, biopsy from other sites (bone marrow, lymph nodes or adrenal gland lesion) or from a simultaneously existing cerebral lesion is suggested, to exclude or prove diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, IVL, or a rare T-cell lymphoma.

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to a jugular foramen schwannoma


Introduction – Although the involvement of the hypoglossal nerve together with other cranial nerves is common in several pathological conditions of the brain, particularly the brainstem, isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare condition and a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation – The presented patient arrived to the hospital with a history of slurred speech and an uncomfortable sensation on his tongue. Neurological examination showed left-sided hemiatrophy of the tongue with fasciculations and deviation towards the left side during protrusion. Based on the clinical and MRI findings, a diagnosis of hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was made. Discussion – Hypoglossal nerve palsy may arise from multiple causes such as trauma, infections, neoplasms, and endocrine, autoimmune and vascular pathologies. In our case, the isolated involvement of the hypoglossal nerve was at the skull base segment, where the damage to the hypoglossal nerve may occur mostly due to metastasis, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, nerve sheath tumors and glomus tumors. Conclusion – Because of the complexity of the region’s anatomy, the patient diagnosed with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was referred for gamma knife radiosurgery.