Lege Artis Medicinae

[COMPLEX TREATMENT OF OROPHARYNGEAL DYSPHAGIA]

MÉSZÁROS Krisztina, HACKI Tamás, VARGA Zsuzsa

APRIL 20, 2005

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2005;15(04)

[The authors focus on the rehabilitation of patients with dysphagia caused by surgical and/or irradiative treatment of head and neck tumors as well as neurogenic diseases. The complex rehabilitation includes treatment of the oropharyngeal swallowing dysfunction as well as the therapy of communicative disabilities. The home care of patients with dysphagia, which can not only be life threatening, but also causes social isolation, is an important task for the general practitioner.]

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[The 25th Congress of Colon Section of the Hungarian Society of Gastroenterology - Gyula, January 21-22. 2005.]

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[CLINICAL EXAMINATION OF ENZYME CATALASE AND ITS MUTATIONS IN HUNGARY]

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[Hydrogen peroxide is formed during physiological and pathological processes in the human body. Hydrogen peroxide in high concentration and its more reactive compound (hydroxyl radical) can damage cells. Recent findings show that hydrogen peroxide in low concentration is required for many physiological pathways of cell signaling such as diabetes, platelet activation, inflammation, immune response. In human tissues the steady state concentration of hydrogen peroxide changes between 0.1 nmol/l-100 micromol/l. The main regulator of hydrogen peroxide metabolism is the enzyme catalase. This enzyme has a fast and high activity on high hydrogen peroxide concentrations and it shows a weak effect on its physiologic concentration. Acatalasemia, the inherited deficiency of enzyme catalase seems to be rather a syndrome than a simple enzyme deficiency as it was thought earlier. It is associated with changes in lipid, carbohydrate and erythrocyte metabolisms. Contrary to the the worldwide (11 countries) distribution of acatalasemia only two syndrome causing catalase mutations have been reported from Japan. Recently, four novel catalase mutations detected in one acatalasemic and 12 hypocatalasemic Hungarian families which mutations are responsible for the decreased catalase activity.]

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[Although the differential diagnosis of asthma is simple in most cases, there are cases causing difficulties. Beside as an aid in diagnosis, there is a growing need for new tests to monitor airway inflammation to optimize and monitor the effect of treatment. Following the traditional methods used in everyday clinical practice a new method, the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide was introduced in the past decade. With this method, completely new information can be obtained about asthma supplementing other results in diagnosis making and disease monitoring. It is also expected to become the part of clinical practice in the next few years. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is elevated in asthmatic patients and its elevation is positively related to the degree of eosinophilic airway inflammation and symptoms. This measurement is approved in the European Union and in the USA for clinical use to monitor the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma.]

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