Lege Artis Medicinae

[Commission plans, budget executes]

DECEMBER 25, 1991

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1991;1(18)

[The social security reform concept adopted by the Parliament was a victory for the "socially sensitive, right-wing self" of the coalition, even according to the opposition press, Népszabadság. It adequately reflected the necessary division of tasks between the state and the insurance sectors, it was able to create a proper balance between the insurance and solidarity principles in the long term and, above all, it stated by force of law that the reform should start on 1 January 1992. It also provided for the most urgent tasks, such as the separation of pension and health insurance, the provision of assets to the social security fund, the profiling of the state social functions, the financing of the state social functions from the budget, the payment of the state's debts, and so on.]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Metoprolol treatment in dialated cardiomyopathy]

DÉKÁNY Miklós, NYOLCAS Noémi, FIÓK János, VÁNDOR László, SEREG Mátyás, BALOGH Ildikó

[Authors applied metoprolol for treating heart failure in with dilated cardiomyopathy. Patients were given digitalis, diuretics as well as ACE-inhibitor and vasodilator drugs. The grade of heart failure was according to NYHA classification in the mean 2.5 class. For assessing the effect of metoprolol clinical variables and results of non-invasive tests were evaluated and compared in 3 consecutive periods: 1) before starting metoprolol, 2) 2–4 weeks after reaching its definitive dose (short-term effect), 3) 3-6 months later (medium-term effect). Early intolerance appeared in 3 patients; signi ficant progression of heart failure in 2 and hypotension causing complaints in 1. Evaluating the actually treated 17 patients clinical signs of heart failure (NYHA class) decreased, left ventricular ejection fraction improved, though not significantly in case of every considered variables, left atrial filling pressure decreased, exercise capacity did not alter, rate-pressure product decreased at rest and at low level of exercise as well. The authors stress the significance of "up-regulation" of myocardial beta-1 receptors in the reduction of myocardial toxic catecholamin effect and myocardial oxygen demand as well as in the increase of myocardial blood supply. Referring to the data of the respective literature and to their own experiences the authors suggest metoprolol treatment in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy, where previus therapy did not prove to be efficient.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Role of oxygen derived free radicals during myocardial reperfusion]

KÓNYA László , FEHÉR János, JUHÁSZ Nagy Sándor

[Oxygen derived free radicals are now considered to be important contributors to tissue (myocardium) injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. Normaly the tissue concentration of these toxic intermediate products of oxygen is strietly limited, but production of oxygen free radicals overwhelming the capacity of the tissue elimination may cause serious damage. Thus reperfusion has it's own danger with the extension of the injury produced by the ischemia alone. Several experi mental studies have shown that different free radical scavengers can reduce the post-ischemic tissue injury, however, there are contradictory results and unresolved problems. Further investigation is necessary to establish the relevance of oxygen free radical mediated myocardial injury and the effective antioxidant treatment. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[Belfast Metoprolol Study; Helsinki Heart Study]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Autoimmunity and the network of the antibody-forming cells: the "immunological homunculus"]

UHER Ferenc

[Frank M. Burnet's clonal selection theory declares the deletion and/or anergy of self-reactive clones to be the fundamental mechanism responsible for self tolerance. There is ample evidence, however, that all healthy individuals have lymphocytes and , natural” antibodies that recognize self structures. In the 1970s, Niels K. Jerne postulated the network theory. It is based on the idea that the idiotype, the region of an immunoglobulin that is unique because it comprises the antigen-binding portion of the molecule, can act as both antigen and antibody within the same individual. Network theory views the immune system as a single, highly interconnected system, through idiotypes, a web of V domains. Antonio Coutinho adressed this problem and divided the repertoire of the B lymphocytes into two parts. He suggested that a set of naturally activated cells and the immunoglobulins they secrete, is reflected in the autonomous immune activities of the self-related network as the central immune system. In contrast, immune responses to external antigens are essentially allonomous clonal activities of another set of resting, rapidly turning over lymphocytes that follow the predictions of the clonal selection theory, making up the peripheral part of the system. Finally, Irun R. Cohen suggested that some, perhaps all, major autoantigens are indeed dominant because each one of them is encoded in the organizational structure of the immune system. This picture was termed the immunological homunculus by its analogy to the picture of the body encoded in the central nervous system. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Modern therapy of intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhages]


[The frequency of the intracerebral hemorrhages among the strokes is most commonly quoted around 10 percent. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is often complicated with subarachnoideal hemorrhage as well as with intracerebral hematoma therefore this latter type of intraparenchymal hemorrhage may also be discussed in this topic. The modern imaging procedures (Computed to mography, Nuclear magnetic resonance) are of crucial importance in the urgent and exact diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhages. The first essential step in the diagnosis of stroke is to distinguish the ischemic lesion from the hemorrhage by means of CT. When an intra cerebral hemorrhage threatens life and the patient's condition is relatively good there must be an urgent decision considering the choice between medical therapy or surgical intervention. Although clearcut indications for surgery are now available, the clinical and computed tomographic guidelines play indi vidually an important role in the final decision. The individual judgment is always desirable in every case of intracerebral hemorrhage as well as in the surgical intrvention of intracranial aneurysm during the acute phase (two days).]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Family planning in multiple sclerosis: conception, pregnancy, breastfeeding]

RÓZSA Csilla

[Family planning is an exceptionally important question in multiple sclerosis, as women of childbearing age are the ones most often affected. Although it is proven that pregnancy does not worsen the long-term prognosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, many patients are still doubtful about having children. This question is further complicated by the fact that patients – and often even doctors – are not sufficiently informed about how the ever-increasing number of available disease-modifying treatments affect pregnancies. Breastfeeding is an even less clear topic. Patients usually look to their neurologists first for answers concerning these matters. It falls to the neurologist to rationally evaluate the risks and benefits of contraception, pregnancy, assisted reproduction, childbirth, breastfeeding and disease modifying treatments, to inform patients about these, and then together come to a decision about the best possible therapeutic approach, taking the patients’ individual family plans into consideration. Here we present a review of relevant literature adhering to international guidelines on the topics of conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, with a special focus on the applicability of approved disease modifying treatments during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The goal of this article is to provide clinicians involved in the care of MS patients with up-to-date information that they can utilize in their day-to-day clinical practice. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Epidemiology, cost and economic impact of cerebral palsy in Hungary]

FEJES Melinda, VARGA Beatrix, HOLLÓDY Katalin

[Objective - The purpose of our communication was to determine the total cost of cerebral paretic patients in Hungary between 0 and 18 years and to assess their impact on the national budget. Methods - Based on the data of Borsod county we calculated the CP characteristics. The cost of CP was determined by routine care of individuals. Lost Parental Income and Tax were calculated on the basis of average earnings. The ratio of GDP, Health and Social Budget and Health Budget to CP is based on CP annual average cost and frequency. We have developed a repeatable computational model. Results - Of the risk groups, premature birth (30.97%), low birth weight (29.64%), perinatal asphyxia (19.47%) were the most common. Source is unknown of 37.61% of the cases. CP prevalence was 2.1‰. The two-sided (59.7%) and the one-sided (19.0%) spastic pareses dominated. The most serious form is the two-sided spastic paresis (42.5% GMFCS 3-5 degrees). Epilepsy was 22.0%, incontinence was 27%, mental involvement was 46%. Care for one child up to 18 years of age costs an average of 73 million HUF (€ 251,724). The lost family income was 27.36 million HUF (€ 94,345), and lost tax and health care contributions were 14.46 million HUF (€ 49,862). Additionally, 0.525% of the GDP, 0.88% of the full health and social budget and 1.83% of direct medical costs were spent for CP families. Conclusion - The cost of CP disease is significant. Costs can be reduced by improving primary prevention. From the perspective of the family and government, it is better to care for families so they can take care of their disabled children.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Financing of medicines for treatment of rare diseases of the nervous system. orphan drugs in rare neurological diseases]


[Objectives – Nervous system involvement is expected up to 60-70% in case of rare diseases. This article aims to present the financial methods and expenditures of rare neurological diseases’ orphan medicinal products being financed in the frame of Hungarian social insurance system in 2012. Methods – The subsidized orphan medicines were selected on the Orphanet portal 2012 while orphans financed by compessionate use were provided by the Hungarian National Insurance Fund Administration (OEP) database. Three products exist without orphan designation, however those are intended for the treatment of rare neurological ailments. The medicines were categorized by financial methods and determined by costs. Results – Numerically, out of 36 pieces of subsidized orphan or orphan criteria fulfilled medicines 17 were authorized for the treatments of rare neurological diseases in the year of 2012. Most of the drugs (14 pieces) were to be financed in the frame of compassionate use by the reimbursement system. The cost amount of social insurance for 387 rare neurological disease patients reached more than 4.5 billion HUF (1.4% of the total pharmaceutical budget in outpatient care). Conclusions – In Hungary half of the subsidized orphans are intended for the treatments of rare neurological ailments. 30% of the total amount of social insurance for rare diseases’ medicinal treatments were used to subsidizing rare neurological disease patients in 2012. Most of the orphan medicines were to be financed in the frame of compassionate use by the reimbursement system for outpatient care. Consequently, a great deal of crucial problems occurred in relation with the unconventional subsidizing method. At the end of 2012 new financial methods have been elaborated and introduced in a pilot phase from 1 January 2013. In spite of the high cost commitment, nearly the entire diagnosed rare disease subpopulation have been provided with subsidized treatments in Hungary. In order to facilitate the acces to orphan medicines, collaboration shall be achieved by financing authority and professionals for identificating the descently sustainable, affordable and viable financial method. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Five-year results of „Comprehensive Health Screening of Hungary 2010-2020”]

KISS István, BARNA István, DAIKI Tenno, DANKOVICS Gergely

[The „Comprehensive Health Screening of Hungary 2010-2020” have finished the 5th jubilee season. Int he past five year the program was working succesfully as a model for the primer and secondary prevention. The results of comprehensive screening have shown caracteristic picture about the health of population, and many people received education, informations about health protection, prevention and healthy lifestyle. More than 900 places, 7 millions of filled risk queries, 112 000 people’s comprehensive screening and 250 000 counsellings are the summary of activities. Some 200 000 people received the information pack. Significant is the familiar occurence of tumors and cardiovascular diseases, that means 20% of prevalence in test subjects. We are obese, smokers, physically inactive, our health behavior is poor. The improvement of the populational health care activity is among the strategical plans of health politics, and it is badly needed based on the results of MÁESZ Program.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[History of Daytime Hospital of the Department of Psychiatry in the University of Debrecen ]


[In Hungary, there was a ward related psychotherapy already since the 1960s, yet without any national network to the 1980s. In Debrecen the spreading of the psychotherapeutic approach started in the psychiatric facilities since the 1990s. Daytime Hospital was founded first in the County Hospital and later on in the Department of Psychiatry of the University. The latter option was provided by separating the psychiatry from neurology. This study presents the development of the day care at the Psychiatric Department along the opportunities and shows the structure of the actually functioning system finally reports on our future plans respectively. Initially started the occupational therapy, gymnastics, community cooking and walking, which did not require any separate rooms. The 22-bed psychotherapeutic unit was established 2014 with its joined capacity for 11 persons in the Daytime Hospital. The County Hospital is engaged primarily in socio-therapy of psychotic psychiatry pa­tients, however the Psychiatric Department is rehabilitating mainly patients with affective spectrum disorders. Patients are treated in socio-therapy and psychotherapy small groups for a half or one year. Afterward they enter the outpatient program, may join the Patient Club or decide for therapeutic occupation aiming the best way of recovery. According to the feedback, there is a long-term change in the mental state of the patients leading to improvement in their quality of life, which we plan to prove by an efficacy research program. ]