Lege Artis Medicinae

[Colonizing the Body – Sways of Civilization]

ZSINKÓ-SZABÓ Zoltán, LÁZÁR Imre, TÚRY Ferenc

MARCH 22, 2012

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2012;22(03)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[On Charon’s boat]

NAGY Zsuzsanna

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[Xerostomy - about the background of an unpleasant symptome]

GERLINGER Imre

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Epidemiological surveillance systems used by international organisations in military crisis management operations]

KOPCSÓ István, KISS Antal Zsolt

[Facing new challenges and growing requirements, the renewal and adjustment of doctrines, methods and technology is an indispensable progressive need for modern militaries. In order to achieve the maximal protection of troops and conservation of fighting strength, innovation is continuous and has greatly accelerated in the whole spectrum of Force Health Protection. Owing to the development of technology, portable capabilities that had been available only in the hinterland have become available in the military medical support area. Utilising mobile information technology solutions, the continuous, real-time information flow between the tactical level medical units and the higher level medical analysts and decision makers has become technically feasible, which results in a significant widening of epidemiological surveillance capabilities as well. We discuss the current challenges of expeditionary- type military operations and their general epidemiological aspects and the morbidity reporting and monitoring systems used in international military missions. Furthermore, we overview the milestones of the development of the NATO near-real-time epidemiological surveillance system, the NATO Deployment Health Surveillance Capability, which functions as a branch of the Budapestbased multinational NATO Centre of Excellence for Military Medicine.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[What is the doctor like, if female? - Female doctors’ ideal image based on empirical studies]

MOLNÁR Regina, GIRASEK Edmond, CSINÁDY Adriána, BUGÁN Antal

[The aim of our study was to examine thestereotypes about female doctors and howdo the female medical students perceivethe working female doctors whom are theirrole models. In the first study (247 from theAlbert Szent-Györgyi Medical and Pharma-ceutical Centre at the University of Szegedand 256 from the Medical and HealthScience Centre of the University ofDebrecen) the female medical students’professional socialization was compared tothe male counterparts’. In the second study(from University of Szeged, 214 femalemedical students, 132 female jurist stu-dents) female medical and jurist students'professional socialization was comparedincluding the comparison of stereotypes inconnection with working female doctorsand jurists. Female medical students’ professionalsocialization is different that of male coun-terparts in several aspects: being morealtruistic, more family centered, gettingcommited to the profession earlier, havingmore ambiguous carrier planes, and asmaller percentage of their parents’ has adegree or is a medical doctor, then for malemedical students. The female medical doc-tor has positive, idealistic, altruistic charac-ters according to both female studentgroups’ opinions. The female doctor’simage is more often associated with char-actersitics implying problems by femalemedical students then jurists. The unfold-ing image of these stereotypes is a femaledoctor who is willing to help, however,faceing lots of hardnesses during work.If the female medical students’ image of theproblematic life of these idealistic femaledoctors’ is known, it provides an opportu-nity to prepare them for the hardnessesthey’ll face avoiding role conflicts andhealth problems in the future.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The new British recommendations for the treatment of lower back pain on the basis of the new NICE guidelines - comparison with the Hungarian therapeutic practice]

VERECKEI Edit, PALKONYAI Éva, SIMONCSICS Eszter, APÁTHY Ágnes, TEMESVÁRI I. Péter

[The new NICE guidelines on lower back pain emphasise the importance of clinical assessment. Radiological imaging methods are used primarily to exclude severe diseases, such as tumour, infection, trauma or inflammation. It’s crucial to inform patients and encourage them to use self-management and stay active. Pain management is guided by the analgesic ladder. A complex physical and psychological treatment is used, which involves a structured exercise programme, manual therapy and acupuncture, taking into account the preferences of the patient. Depending on the aetiology, surgical intervention should be considered in therapy-resistant cases. Finally, the authors compare the above guidelines with the Hungarian practice in this field.]

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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1; also known as Von Recklinghausen’s disease) is a common autosomal dominant disease that occurs in the general population at the rate of 1 in 3000. Many NF-1 patients present with spinal malformations. A 54-year-old female patient was admitted to the Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology with gradually increasing swelling and spots on the body that had been present for a long period of time. Cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and dural ectasia (DE) were also detected. She was diagnosed with NF-1. NF-1 is routinely seen in dermatology practice. Coexistence of NF-1 with vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE rarely occurs. Our case is the second reported instance in the literature of NF-1 with a spinal anomaly in the cervical region, and the first reported instance of the coexistence of NF-1 with cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE.

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[The place of orthorexia nervosa (ON) - described by Bratman in 1997 - is not clearly defined in the diagnostic systems. However, the increasing number of clinical experiences and research data gives us more and more information about the epidemiology, and the social and individual characteristics of ON. The general population shows a 6.9% prevalence of ON; healthcare professionals are at high risk of ON with the prevalence rate of 35-57.6%. Education, the choice of profession, socioeconomic status and the internalization of the ideals of society are significant factors in the development of ON, while sex, age and body mass index do not seem to be determining variables in this respect. The lack of common criteria and proper research results on ON makes it impossible to generalize data on the general population. Further studies with larger representative samples and assessment instruments with good psychometric properties are necessary to make research data on ON comparable.]

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[Atrial fibrillation (PF) is the most common arrhythmia on the basis of analyzes conducted in different regions of the world. The main reason for this is the aging of the population. High blood pressure is one of the major factors of mortality in both developed and poor economical countries. The combined presence of the two diseases presents many hazards to our body. The most significant of these is the development of thromboembolic stroke, which is constantly increasing with age. The author analyzes in detail the aetiology called atrial cardiomyopathy, behind which there are complex structural, architectural, contractile and electro-physiological changes and leads to clinical manifestation of PF.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Evaluation of body image by means of body shape test and the priming phenomenon]

KOVÁCS Gyöngyvér Xénia, PRIEVARA Dóra Katalin, PIKÓ Bettina

[INTRODUCTION - Body image plays a significant role in the way how the individuals evaluate their own health and in the motivation for health promotion and disease prevention. Consumer culture provides controversial messages for the population, on one hand it motivates to try foods of high calories, on the other hand it also supports the thin body for the ideal. Not surprisingly, besides obesity, eating disorders and distorted body image disorders also tended to increase during the past decades. Therefore, it would be relevant to investigate the background variables of body image. METHODS - One hundred and sixty seven healthy working adults participated in our study that included a self-completed, voluntary and anonymous questionnaire with a focus on the so called body shape test. First, based on projecting figures on slides, the participants evaluated their own figure and the ideal one as perceived by them. Then we projected figures of skinny models. After this they re-evaluated themselves. The goal of this investigation was to detect the priming effect of projecting slim figures that is frequently used in the media. RESULTS - Based on the projection of the skinny models, there was a change in 55.6% of the sample in the evaluation of one’s own figure. On a Likert-type scale of 1-7 points, previously they had evaluated themselves with an average of 3.23 points (thinness scale) that turned into 3.35 after the projection of the skinny models. In addition, their view about their own ideal body (4.57 points), and about female and male ideal body also changed into a slimmer one. These changes were statistically significant (p < .001) by paired t-test both for men and women. Finally, men and women did not show significant difference in the evaluation of female and male ideal body. CONCLUSIONS - These results justified the role of the pictures’ priming effect in body image both in terms of the perception of one’s own figure and the ideal body. The change was particularly relevant in the case of evaluation of one’s own figure due to the choice of the slimmer body as compared to the view of the ideal body. Evaluation of female and male ideal body was similar to the first projection of the pictures as compared to what they would think as ideal for themselves. After the projection images of the female and male ideal body moved to the slimmer figures in a smaller account as compared to the own ideal body image. All these suggest that pictures projected by the media may have a significant role in the population’s body image. Clarifying the phenomenon may help in health promotion and dieting related disease prevention. ]

Hungarian Immunology

[Mutations of La gene: the proper reaction of the immune system]

SEMSEI Imre

[Numerous hypotheses have emerged to solve the problem and the pathomechanism of autoimmunity so far. Different factors are suspected, from viruses to neuroendocrine elements, to be a pathogen in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Most of the theories are based on the assumption that something happens to the immune system and it leads to an autoimmune reaction against the proper self. This paper indicates that, at least in certain cases, the immune system reacts properly against the altered cells; therefore the cause of the autoimmunity lies in the other improper functioning of the body. Experimental data show that La autoantigen plays a role not only as a diagnostic marker but it may participate in the pathomechanism of certain autoimmune diseases as well. Mutations in the exon 7 of La gene have such consequences that could lead to the formation of autoimmune reactions detected.]