Lege Artis Medicinae

[Code of breast core biopsies: B1-B5]

KULKA Janina, CSERNI Gábor, PÉNTEK Zoltán

FEBRUARY 20, 2003

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2003;13(02)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Will the reform in the Hungarian health care be realized?]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[A 6-month, placebo-controlled study comparing lung function and health status changes in COPD patients treated with tiotropium or salmeterol]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[New molecular based methods for diagnosis, classification and prognosis of leukemias]

ZVARA Ágnes, HACKLER László, PUSKÁS László G.

[Normal functions of the cell are based on the precise regulation of various genes. If this strict regulation and the hierarchy of genes becomes upset due to some flaws of the system, the result will be cellular dysfunction which may eventually lead to carcinogenic transformation. The two main challenges in the classification of cancers are the discovery of new molecular markers characteristic to defined disease groups and the classification of already diagnosed or new cases into existing groups. This precise classification may open the door to tailored treatment or project the expected outcome of the disease. Today, there is unlimited access available to the databases containing sequences and localisation of the genes within the confines of Human Genome project. It provides significant help for the discovery of chromosome abnormalities and systematic analysis of gene expression patterns. This is important not only to understand normal functions of the cells, but it also contributes to the identification of new genes that are characteristic to given disease groups as markers and that are potential drug targets. Until the second half of the twentieth century the study of the function and regulation of genes was based on step by step investigation of individual genes. The fact that the genomes of an increasing number of organisms have become identified in whole or in part, numerous new techniques have been developed facilitating the systematic analysis of gene functions. The aim of this study is to summarise the new, molecular based possibilities for classification, diagnosis and prognosis of cancers, as well as to summarise the results of these areas, primarily from the point of view of leukemias.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Urinary diversion - bladder replacement]


[Author gives a review of the surgical procedures, advantages and disadvantages of urinary diversion and bladder replacement techniques. Orthotopic bladder replacement is presented in detail, outlining also the complications. The questions affecting general practitioners, as well as gynaecologists, surgeons and internists are also discussed at length. The different techniques of bladder replacement have become widely accepted in Hungary within the past few years. It is important therefore that all physicians involved in the care of these patients become well acquainted with the possible complications and the changes in the lifestyle of these patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Human genome project]


[The main goal of the Human Genom Project is to reveal the complete structure of the human DNA, involving the sequence determination of the three billion basepairs. The program was launched in 1990, executed in laboratories of the public sector in several countries. Results of this project are made public on the Internet. In 1998 a private sector company, Celera, was founded with the same goal. In 2001 both projects announced the accomplishment of the first draft of the Human Genome. A whole issue of Nature and Science magazine was devoted to present the first results of their findings. According to the results less than one percent of the genetic information is transcribed to proteins. The estimated number of genes was also lower than expected (30-40 thousand, which number recently increased to 40-60 thousand). Based on these findings, human complexity should be ascribed to the variability of the information units (domains) rather than to the number of genes. Once the complete sequence of the humane genome is accomplished, the ’pre-genomic era’ will be over and the ’post-genomic era’ will begin, dealing with understanding the genetic information, annotating the genes and mapping the genetic variability of people.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

EEG-based connectivity in patients with partial seizures with and without generalization

DÖMÖTÖR Johanna, CLEMENS Béla, EMRI Miklós, PUSKÁS Szilvia, FEKETE István

Objective - to investigate the neurophysiological basis of secondary generalization of partial epileptic seizures. Patients and methods - inter-ictal, resting-state EEG functional connectivity (EEGfC) was evaluated and compared: patients with exclusively simple partial seizures (sp group) were compared to patients with simple partial and secondary generalized seizures (spsg group); patients with exclusively complex partial seizures (cp group) were compared to patients with cp and secondary generalized seizures (cpsg group); the collapsed sp+cp group (spcp) was compared to those who had exclusively secondary generalized seizures (sg group). EEGfC was computed from 21-channel waking EEG. 3 minutes of waking EEG background activity was analyzed by the LORETA Source Correlation (LSC) software. Current source density time series were computed for 23 pre-defined cortical regions (ROI) in each hemisphere, for the 1-25 Hz very narrow bands (1 Hz bandwidth). Thereafter Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between all pairs of ROI time series in the same hemisphere. Z-scored correlation coefficients were compared at the group level (t-tests and correction for multiple comparisons by local false discovery rate, FDR). Results - Statistically significant (corrected p<0.05) EEGfC differences emerged at specific frequencies (spsg > sg; cpsg > cp), and at many frequencies (sg > spcp). The findings indicated increased coupling between motor cortices and several non-motor areas in patients with partial and sg seizures as compared to patients with partial seizures and no sg seizures. Further findings suggested increased coupling between medial parietal-occipital areas (structural core of the cortex) and lateral hemispheric areas. Conclusion - increased inter-ictal EEGfC is associated with habitual occurrence of secondary generalized seizures.

Lege Artis Medicinae


TÓTH Kálmán

[Life span, body mass and metabolic rate are strongly related to resting heart rate. Several studies suggest that the reduction of heart rate has a beneficial effect on cardiac morbidity and mortality. Ivabradine, the first selective and specific If- channel inhibitor, has a novel and unique mode of action on cardiac pacemaker activity. It acts at the core of heart rate regulation by specifically binding to the f-channel of the sinus node cell and selectively inhibiting the If (funny) current. Praeclinical studies have convincingly proved that this drug reduces heart rate without any adverse electrophysiologic or haemodynamic side effects.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Fulvestrant therapy induced complete remission in advanced, symptomatic, metastatic breast cancer]

CSENKI Melinda, KAHÁN Zsuzsanna

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Fulvestrant in late stage breast cancer]

BÍRÓ Mátyás, BÜDI László, AL-JAZAIRI Abdul Baki

Hungarian Radiology

[MR-guided ultrasound surgery]

JÓLESZ Ferenc A., BÉRCZI Viktor, HÜTTL Kálmán, REPA Imre, KULLERVO Hynynen

[The powerful union of focused ultrasound surgery and magnetic resonance imaging has created a new approach to noninvasive surgery. Using this integrated therapy delivery system the physician can achieve correct localisation of tumors, optimal targeting of acoustic energy, real time monitoring of energy deposition, and the means to accurately control the deposited thermal dose within the entire tumor volume. The advantages of MRI over ultrasound guidance in controlling focused ultrasound surgery lie in the more sensitive detection of tumor target, the real time detection of tissue temperature, and the confirmation of thermally-induced tissue changes - powerful features that eventually can replace the traditional surgical approach. Applying software that connects the therapy and imaging system, the physician can generate an entire plan from quantifying temperature changes to positioning the therapy transducer. The non-invasive debulking of tumors without disturbing adjacent, functionally intact structures is thereby accomplished. Ongoing clinical trials involving the treatment of breast fibroadenoma, localized breast cancers, and uterine fibroids have been most encouraging. But nowhere has the application of MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery been more compelling than in brain, where not only tumor treatment is possible but also the focal, transient, reversible breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier. The implications of this mechanism for targeted intra-cerebral tumor therapy or other non-oncologic applications are clearly enormous. In addition to tumor treatment, MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery has other potential clinical applications such as vascular occlusion, targeted drug delivery, and targeted gene therapy. FUS is not a new idea but the emergence of MRI based guidance has accelerated the progres of focused ultrasound surgery technology, certain weaknesses remain including excessively long treatment times, body and organ motion, and difficulties in finding acoustic windows at certain anatomic locations. Nevertheless, the successful clinical implementations of this method is already in progress.]