Lege Artis Medicinae

[Code of breast core biopsies: B1-B5]

KULKA Janina, CSERNI Gábor, PÉNTEK Zoltán

FEBRUARY 20, 2003

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2003;13(02)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Evaluation of bone mineral density in renal form of primary hyperparathyroidism]


[INTRODUCTION - The most frequent manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism are renal stones or calcipenic osteopathy. The aim of authors was to examine how bones are affected (change of bone mineral density and frequency of fractures) in the renal form of primary hyperparathyroidism. METHODS - Mean age of the patients was 57 years (26 -81 years), (4 men, 33 women). Bone mineral density was measured in the lower third of the radius, femoral neck and lumbar 2-4 vertebrae by densitometers. Moreover, occurrence of fractures and biochemical parameters characteristic for hyperparathyroidism (serum parathyroid hormone levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium/ creatinine) were examined. RESULTS - Bone mineral density was normal in 6 cases, osteopenic in 10 patients and 21 patients had osteoporosis. Altogether five patients had fractures. Bone mineral density and biochemical parameters were not different in patients with or without fractures. CONCLUSIONS - Bone mineral density decreases in renal form of primary hyperparathyroidism even if there is no bone disease in the clinical picture. Therefore, bone mineral density measurement is advisable for every patient with hyperparathyroidism.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A 6-month, placebo-controlled study comparing lung function and health status changes in COPD patients treated with tiotropium or salmeterol]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diuretic treatment]

RADÓ János

[Diuretics are used almost in all fields of medical practice for treating patients in various conditions associated with or without oedema. They exert their effects through profound alterations in the fluid volumes, ion content of the body and in the osmoregulation. They act mainly on the kidneys but the functions of several other organs are also influenced including the heart and vessels, the lungs, liver and the brain. Summarising our knowledge on the diuretics is justified by the broadened use of these drugs and the differences regarding their site of action, potency, way of administration, dosing and side effects. The special indications for diuretic therapy and combined usage of different diuretics are also reviewed.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Urinary diversion - bladder replacement]


[Author gives a review of the surgical procedures, advantages and disadvantages of urinary diversion and bladder replacement techniques. Orthotopic bladder replacement is presented in detail, outlining also the complications. The questions affecting general practitioners, as well as gynaecologists, surgeons and internists are also discussed at length. The different techniques of bladder replacement have become widely accepted in Hungary within the past few years. It is important therefore that all physicians involved in the care of these patients become well acquainted with the possible complications and the changes in the lifestyle of these patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with coronary artery disease and its progression is dependent on the modifying effect of mannose-binding lectin]


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Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

A new method to determine the optimal orientation of Slim Modiolar cochlear implant electrode array insertion

HORVÁTH Bence, PERÉNYI Ádám, MOLNÁR Fiona Anna, CSANÁDY Miklós, KISS József Géza, ROVÓ László

Our goal was to determine the optimal orientation of insertion of the Slim Modiolar electrode and develop an easy-to-use method to aid implantation surgery. In some instances, the electrode arrays cannot be inserted in their full length. This can lead to buckling, interscalar dislocation or tip fold-over. In our opinion, one of the possible reasons of tip fold-over is unfavourable orientation of the electrode array. Our goal was to determine the optimal orientation of the Slim Modiolar electrode array relative to clear surgical landmarks and present our method in one specified case. For the measurement, we used the preoperative CT scan of one of our cochlear implant patients. These images were processed by an open source and free image visualization software: 3D Slicer. In the first step we marked the tip of the incus short process and then created the cochlear view. On this view we drew two straight lines: the first line represented the insertion guide of the cochlear implant and the second line was the orientation marker (winglet). We determined the angle enclosed by winglet and the line between the tip of the incus short process and the cross-section of previously created two lines. For the calculation we used a self-made python code. The result of our algorithm for the angle was 46.6055°. To validate this result, we segmented, from the CT scan, the auditory ossicles and the membranaceous labyrinth. From this segmentation we generated a 3D reconstruction. On the 3D view, we can see the position of the previous lines relative to the anatomical structures. After this we rotated the 3D model together with the lines so that the insertion guide forms a dot. In this view, the angle was measured with ImageJ and the result was 46.599°. We found that our method is easy, fast, and time-efficient. The surgery can be planned individually for each patient, based on their routine preoperative CT scan of the temporal bone, and the implantation procedure can be made safer. In the future we plan to use this method for all cochlear implantation surgeries, where the Slim Modiolar electrode is used.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Minimally invasive and O-arm assisted en bloc spinal tumor resections ]

SZABÓ Viktor, LAKOSI Ferenc, NAGY Máté, DÓCZI Tamás, BÜKI András, SCHWARCZ Attila

[The en bloc resection of spinal tumors is required in primary spine tumors and in selected cases of secondary spine tumors, where the primary disease is under control and long survival time is expected. Three cases are presented, applying O-arm assisted navigation or minimally invasive anterior approaches for en bloc tumor removal. O-arm navigation assisted osteotomies were carried out to remove a Th.V. breast tumor metastasis en bloc, intact bony part of the Th.V. vertebra was spared. Vertebral corpectomies of a patient with L.IV. chordoma and of a patient with L.V. carcinoid were also performed using minimally invasive, microscope assisted, anterior approaches to the lumbar spine. No morbidity or local recurrence were detected in the patient with breast cancer 1 year after the operation. Nevertheless, new spinal metastasis were revealed 1 year after surgery despite the appropriate oncological treatment. The patient with L.IV. chordoma is still tumor free (last follow-up: 18 month after surgery), but post operatively detected lower limb paresis and gait disturbances are persisted. The posterior healthy bony parts of the spinal column remained intact, since only anterior approaches were used for en bloc L.IV. corpectomy. No morbidity or recurrence was detected in patient with L.V. carcinoid tumor on 1 year follow-up. Both the O-arm navigation assisted surgery and the minimally invasive anterior approaches to the spine can help to reduce surgical morbidity and to spare healthy bony structures of the spine. The later could play important role to provide long term spine stability. The presented new surgical technologies can be accepted only, if they produce at least the same oncological results on longer follow-ups as conventional surgical approaches.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Clinical implication of arterial stiffness in the elderly]


[Hypertension prevalence and cardiovascular risk gradually with age. However this aging process seems to take a more rapid course in some individuals, as reflected in the Early Vascular Aging (EVA) syndrome. Age and high blood pressure are the two main determinants of arterial stiffness which is the core of EVA: the impaired elasticity of the media layer of large elastic arteries (mainly the aorta), a process that can be measured by pulse wave velocity. In elderly hyperten­sives, large arteries stiffen and systolic and pulse pressures increase, due to wave reflections. Arterial stiffness has predictive value for future CV e.g. events, coronary artery dis­ease, stroke, and vascular dementia and even all-cause mortality. The concepts of EVA (Early Vascular Aging) and SUPERNOVA (Super­normal Vascular Aging, the opposite phenotype of EVA) help to understand why early target-organ damages develop in some individuals and why others remain much more “younger” than their chronologic age. New drugs are being developed to treat EVA when lifestyle intervention and conven­tional risk factor controlling drugs are not enough.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Analysis of utilization and territorial distribution of Hungary’s waiting list reduction programme ]

PÓNUSZ Róbert, BONCZ Imre, KOVÁCS Dalma, CSONKA Diána, GAZSÓ Tibor, MOLICS Bálint, LUDMAN István, ENDREI Dóra

[In Hungary, the systematic waiting-list reduction program (“X” financing code) started in 2015 aiming to significantly reduce the waiting times of most relevant waiting lists services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization and the territorial distribution of cases financed under the “X-code” between 2015 and 2018. We designed a retrospective and quantitative research on data of the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund. Relevant data contained all publicly financed X-code cases between 2015 and 2018. Since 2015, this code covered the financing of services related to the waiting list reduction program. Processed data informed about patients (age, sex, residency at county level), involved health care facilities (name, type and location among the counties) as well as all provided medical interventions. In the study period 27,716 cases (mean age 68.05 years) were financed, the majority of patients (63.1%) was female. Case numbers per 10,000 inhabitants were the highest in Counties Baranya (84.63), Somogy (60.17), and Zala (58.89). 71.6% of patients received primary care in their residence county. The most frequent intervention was cataract surgery. During Hungary’s waiting list reduction program high number of patients received medical services. We found significant inequalities in utilization of waiting lists interventions and in the institutional engagement.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of ischemic stroke patients with systemic cancer

UFUK Emre, TASKIN Gunes, IREM Pinar, FURUZAN Kokturk, ESENGUL Liman, ORHAN Yağiz

Purpose - In cancer patients, an ischemic stroke can be seen as both a direct effect of cancer and a complication of treatment. This condition can negatively affect the follow-up and treatment of these patients. For this research, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features, stroke types and etiological features of ischemic stroke patients with histories of cancer or found to have cancer during the aetiological investigation. Materials and methods - We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients (57 males, 43 females) who were hospitalized with acute stroke and determined to have the presence of cancer or a cancer history during the aetiological investigation between 2011 and 2016. All the demographic features, stroke types and localizations, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, Rankin Scale scores, durations of cancer and cancer treatments were recorded. Results - The mean age of the patients was 67.07 ± 10.9 years old, the median NIHSS score was 5, and the median Rankin Scale score was 4. While 79% of patients had ischemic stroke risk factors, 21% did not. Atherosclerotic stroke was the most common stroke type (49%, n=49) and cryptogenic strokes were detected in 21% (n=21). In addition, 63% of the patients had chronic cancer (later than 6 months), 31% of the patients had recent cancer histories (less than 6 months), and 29% of the patients had metastases. Among all the malignancies, lung cancer (n=23), gastrointestinal cancer (n=20) and gynaecological-breast cancer (n=16) were the three most common. Moreover, 37% of the patients underwent chemotherapy, 29% underwent radiotherapy, and 88% of the patients had Carotid/Vertebral Doppler USG abnormalities. Conclusion - Similar to what is stated in the literature, an atherosclerotic stroke was the most common type of stroke in the cancer patients. Stroke risk factors were not detected in 21% of the patients, and in the majority of the patients, atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery were observed in the Doppler examinations. In the aetiology and prognosis of ischemic stroke, it is important to keep in mind the existence of cancer in addition to the classical stroke risk factors.