Lege Artis Medicinae

[Christmas vaccine]

FRENKL Róbert

DECEMBER 10, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(12)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Systemic adjuvant pharmacotherapy of colorectal cancer]

BODOKY György

[Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancer in the postindustrial world; its most common form is adenocarcinoma. In Hungary, colorectal cancer has the second highest mortality among tumours. If diagnosed early, it might be successfully treated by surgery, however, chemotherapy is necessary to prevent tumor relapse and development of metastases and achieve adequate palliation. In the past few years, adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer has improved substantially. Many new drugs have been developed, which are also being used in combination with previously known agents. This article will discuss the novelties in the field of adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer and the main guidelines of adjuvant treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Insulin analogues and pregnancy]

TAMÁS GYULA, KERÉNYI ZSUZSA

[Near-normoglycaemic metabolic control in pregnant women with diabetes - started before conception in pregestational diabetes - decreases the frequency of maternal and foetal complications. Such control can be achieved by using optimalised systems of insulin therapy. A number of (ultra)rapid and long-acting insulin analogues became available during the last decade, which - on the basis of theoretical considerations - might be used to maintain normoglycaemia. Summarising the data available today, the use of rapid insulin analogues (lispro, aspart) seem to be effective and safe during pregnancy. Some questions arise, however, about their modes of application. The use of long-acting insulin analogues in pregnancy is currently not indicated. Further trials are needed to prove their efficacy and safety in diabetic pregnancy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Resistant hypertension - differential diagnosis and therapy]

TISLÉR András

[Hypertension is considered resistant to therapy if the target blood pressure is not achieved despite treatment with three different types of antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. Causes of therapy resistance may be grouped into three broad categories: Pseudoresistance can be the result of inadequate blood pressure measurement technique, the “white-coat” effect or the patients’ noncompliance with pharmacological and nonpharmacological medical advices. Evaluation of the measurement technique - including the size of the cuff used - and blood pressure monitoring at home can help identify the causes of pseudoresistance. Secondary resistance comprises drug interactions and concomitant medical conditions that elevate blood pressure or antagonize antihypertensive therapy. In addition, secondary resistance can result from disorders associated with secondary hypertension, among which appropriate screening for hyperaldosteronism as well as for renoparenchymal and renovascular hypertension need special emphasis. Suboptimal therapy is frequently related to subclinical volume overload and the use of inappropriate type or dosing of diuretics. Furthermore, when choosing the optimal drug combination, care should be taken to inhibit the various systems that regulate blood pressure as much as possible. In addition to combining the most frequently used antihypertensive drugs, the use of aldosterone antagonists, vasodilators, nitrates or drugs affecting the central nervous system might help to optimise treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The relevancy of measuring the level of D-dimer test in clinical practice]

PINCZÉS István, SPEER Gábor

[Plasma levels of D-dimer may rise in a number of pathological conditions, which might be relevant for diagnosis as well as for prognosis. Its concentration increases with age, perhaps because of the wide-spread co-morbidity. In this article we demonstrate the diagnostic role of Ddimer in the well-known thromboembolic diseases. Beyond that, we highlight the importance of measuring D-dimer levels in other, lesser-known conditions, about which important findings have been published, such as cardiovascular, inflammatory or malignant diseases. It seems that in these disorders - provided that appropriate clinical conditions are available -, measuring D-dimer levels might have a role not only in diagnosis but in the prognosis as well. Furthermore, our aim was to discourage inappropriate clinical practice. Ignoring to measure the D-dimer levels (for fear of it being high) might lead to diagnostic errors. On the other hand, routinely performing the D-dimer test without clinical consideration (in the hope of it being negative) might cause diagnostic confusion in case of unexpected positivity and - mostly because of false interpretation - lead to further, unnecessary examinations.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Rituximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis]

SÜTŐ Gábor

[Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, lifelong disease that causes severe joint deformity, reduces quality of life, and, if not treated appopriately, leads to disability and substantial premature mortality. Its treatment is a multistep procedure, where different grades of treatment options follow each other. Besides traditional, diseasemodifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological therapies inhibiting TNF, a new therapautic option is the use of a chimeric antibody, rituximab, which inhibits B lymphocyte function. This drug is an effective and safe choice for those patients who have received various anti- TNF therapies or do not tolerate TNF inhibition.]

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[History of vaccine production in Hungary ]

ÓCSAI Lajos

[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Current questions on Pneumococcus infections: cardiovascular complications, cardiotoxicity and new opportunities for prevention among elderly people]

LUDWIG Endre

[The respiratory tract infections, first of all severe pneumonia are associated with severe cardiovascular adverse events the significance of which that had not been recognised so far. Among the adverse events, the development of acute coronaria syndromes, heart failure, arrhythimias are the most important ones leading to significatly higher mortality even after several years. In the development of acute coronaria syndrome , the proinflammatory activites play the cenral role leading to the instability of coronaria plaques and plaque rupture associated with formation of platelet thrombi. The constriction of coronariae, peripherial vasodilatation and hypoxia also contribute to the deleterius complications. The role of pneumococci in this process seems to be especially significant since this pathogen exhibit a unique direct cardiotoxic effect, namely directly invades the myocardium and produce cardiotoxic substances. As a consequence, impairement of cardiomyocite function and contractility and formation of microscopic lesions in which later collagen deposition and long-term cardiac scarring can be detected. These pathological processes are developed despite of antibiotic treatment, consequently, vaccination against pneumococcal infection seems to be the only method for efficacious prevention of the myocardium damage and cardiovascular adverse events. According to the results of the CAPITA study, the conjugate polisaccharide vaccine decrease the number of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal infections by 45 and 75% resp. in the elderly population. The recognition of the direct and indirect role of pneumococci in the development of early and late cardiovascluar adverse events gives a new aspect of the beneficial effect of efficacious vaccination.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vaccine coverage of invasive and carried Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Hungary]

TÓTHPÁL Adrienn, LAUB Krisztina, KARDOS Szilvia, NAGY Károly, DOBAY Orsolya

[Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae will be mandatory for infants and children from 1 July 2014 in Hungary. Since the introduction of the conjugate vaccine against Pneumococcus, the distribution of Pneumococcus serotypes has changed significantly. Surveillance data from the National Centre for Epidemiology show that certain vaccine-type pneumococcal serotypes have almost disappeared owing to the immunization program, while other serotypes have emerged. Nowadays serotype 3 and the multiresistant 19A serotype are the most frequent causes oif invasive infections. A study analysing the nasal carriage of children attending kindergartens also confirmed the decline of vaccine- serotypes parallel to vaccination coverage and the simultaneous emergence of previously very types, such as 19A. The most recent study examining nasal carriage of children attending nursery (age < 3 years) showed that the 13-valent conjugate vaccine has efficiently decreased the carriage of serotypes 3 and 19A, verifying that the immunisation program should be continued using the vaccine providing the broadest coverage against Pneumococcus.]

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[Tumor vaccination]

LACZÓ Ibolya, PIKÓ Béla

[Although cancer immunotherapy was initiated by William Coley more than a century ago, the fi eld of cancer vaccines is in an early stage of development. Only recently, major advances in cellular and molecular immunology have allowed a comprehensive understanding of the interaction between the immune system and the tumor. Data from several preclinical and clinical trials have confi rmed the positive effect of the cancer vaccines which accompanied in several cases by positive clinical outcomes. In our article we try to discuss the new cancer vaccine strategies which are under development or in a clinical phase stage.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vaccine Issues: a Symptom of Disease or Health?]

BÁNFALVI Attila