Lege Artis Medicinae

[Carotid artery auscultation]

MAGYAR M. Tünde, EUN-MI Nam, CSIBA László, RITTER A. Martin, BERND E. Ringelstein, DIRK W. Droste

AUGUST 20, 2003

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2003;13(06)

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[On the transplantation of umbilical cord stem cells]

KAPÓCS Gábor

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[Diagnosis and therapy of insect sting allergy]

BÁNKÚTI Beáta

[Over the past 20 years great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of allergic reactions caused by insect stings. The incidence of insect sting allergy in a general population is about 0.4- 3% but anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom can be fatal. The diagnosis of venom allergy is based on the history suggesting an allergic reaction and on the demonstration of the persistence of specific IgE antibody either by skin tests or RAST. Patients who had a severe allergic reaction and has positive venom skin test or RAST result should be advised to receive venom immunotherapy (VIT). The risk for subsequent life-threatening systemic sting reactions can be significantly reduced with VIT. VIT should be continued for at least 3 to 5 years and provides about 90 % protection from insect sting anaphylaxis.]

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[63th Congress of the American Diabetes Association]

BOSNYÁK Zsolt, STELLA Péter

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[The connection between gastroesophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnoea]

DEMETER Pál, VÁRDI Visy Katalin

[Clinical knowledge on the gastroesophageal reflux disease has been increased with the subject of extragastrointestinal complications in the last decade. Because of cardiological, pulmonological, laryngeal and dental complications, an interdisciplinary approach is required. The non-cardiac chest pain, bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic caugh, posterior laryngitis and acidic damage of dental enamel are the most important complications. Authors study a less common connection between the gastroesophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleeping can be considered as a risk factor of the reflux event by itself, because of the decrease of primary peristalsis, producing of saliva, and acidic and volume clearance of oesophagus as well. During obstructive sleep apnoea negative intrathoracic pressure increases extremely, resulting in increased transdiaphragmatic gradient of pressure as well. In addition, the powerful movement of diaphragm twitches the lower oesophageal sphincter through the phrenoesophageal ligament. These two mechanism practically promotes the reflux event in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The new challenge for the gastroenterologists is to further research this new connection, to play more active role in the complex therapy, and to have a new diagnostic approach of serious gastroesophageal reflux disease.]

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[Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus best supportive care in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously]

REINDL Ildikó

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Simultaneous subdural, subarachnoideal and intracerebral haemorrhage after rupture of a peripheral middle cerebral artery aneurysm

BÉRES-MOLNÁR Anna Katalin, FOLYOVICH András, SZLOBODA Péter, SZENDREY-KISS Zsolt, BERECZKI Dániel, BAKOS Mária, VÁRALLYAY György, SZABÓ Huba, NYÁRI István

The cause of intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage is different, and the simultaneous appearance in the same case is extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient with a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the middle cerebral artery, with a concomitant subdural and intracerebral haemorrhage, and a subsequent secondary brainstem (Duret) haemorrhage. The 59-year-old woman had hypertension and diabetes in her medical history. She experienced anomic aphasia and left-sided headache starting one day before admission. She had no trauma. A few minutes after admission she suddenly became comatose, her breathing became superficial. Non-contrast CT revealed left sided fronto-parietal subdural and subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage, and bleeding was also observed in the right pontine region. The patient had leucocytosis and hyperglycemia but normal hemostasis. After the subdural haemorrhage had been evacuated, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. Sepsis developed. Echocardiography did not detect endocarditis. Neurological status, vigilance gradually improved. The rehabilitation process was interrupted by epileptic status. Control CT and CT angiography proved an aneurysm in the peripheral part of the left middle cerebral artery, which was later clipped. Histolo­gical examination excluded mycotic etiology of the aneu­rysm and “normal aneurysm wall” was described. The brain stem haemorrhage – Duret bleeding – was presumably caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure due to the supratentorial space occupying process and consequential trans-tentorial herniation. This case is a rarity, as the patient not only survived, but lives an active life with some residual symptoms.

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DOLGOS Szilveszter, TÁRNOKI Ádám Domonkos, TÁRNOKI Dávid László

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The applications of transcranial Doppler in ischemic stroke

FINNSDÓTTIR Herdis, SZEGEDI István, OLÁH László, CSIBA László

Background: This overview provides a summary of the applications of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in ischemic stroke. Results: A fast-track neurovascular ultrasound protocol has been developed for detecting occlusion or stenosis. The technique is more reliable in the carotid area than in the posterior circulation. By monitoring the pulsatility index the in­crea­sed intracranial pressure can be diagnosed. TIBI score was developed for grading residual flow. TCD has been shown to accurately predict complete or any recanalization. Regarding recanalization, TCD has a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 88%, a positive predictive value of 96%, a negative predictive value of 78% and an overall accuracy of 91%, respectively. Sonothrombolysis seemed to be a promising application but randomized controlled trials have shown that it does not improve clinical outcome. TCD examination can detect microembolic signals (MES) which are associated with an increased risk of stroke. Micro­em­boli were detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and during carotid endarterectomy. The number of microemboli can be decreased by antithrombotic therapy. Contrast en­chan­ced examination and Valsalva maneuver with continuous TCD monitoring can accurately screen for right-to-left shunt.

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Risk factors for ischemic stroke and stroke subtypes in patients with chronic kidney disease

GÜLER Siber, NAKUS Engin, UTKU Ufuk

Background - The aim of this study was to compare ischemic stroke subtypes with the effects of risk factors, the relationship between grades of kidney disease and the severity of stroke subtypes. Methods - The current study was designed retrospectively and performed with data of patients who were hospitalised due to ischemic stroke. We included 198 subjects who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke of Grade 3 and above with chronic kidney disease. Results - In our study were reported advanced age, coronary artery disease, moderate kidney disease as the most frequent risk factors for cardioembolic etiology. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and alcohol consumption were the most frequent risk factors for large-artery disease. Female sex and anaemia were the most frequent risk factors for small-vessel disease. Dialysis and severe kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors in unknown etiologies, while male sex, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke and mild kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors for other etiologies. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were lower for small-vessel disease compared with other etiologies. This relation was statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusion - In order to improve the prognosis in ischemic stroke with chronic kidney disease, the risk factors have to be recognised and the treatment options must be modified according to those risk factors.

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[Clinical neurophysiological methods in diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases]

NAGY Ildikó, FABÓ Dániel

[Neurophysiological methods are gaining ground in the diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular disease. While the role of the EEG (electroencephalography) in the diagnosis of post-stroke epilepsy is constant, quantitative EEG para-meters, as new indicators of early efficiency after thrombolysis or in prognosis of patient’s condition have proved their effectiveness in several clinical studies. In intensive care units, continuous EEG monitoring of critically ill patients became part of neurointenzive care protocols. SSEP (somatosesnsory evoked potencial) and EEG performed during carotid endarterectomy, are early indicative intraoperativ neuromonitoring methods of poor outcome. Neurorehabilitation is a newly discovered area of neurophysiology. Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Brain computer interface mark the onset of modern rehabi-litation, where the function deficit is replaced by robotic tehnology. ]