Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiovascular prevention 2021 – Guidelines of European Society of Cardiology 2021. General principles]

VÁLYI Péter1,2, KÉKES Ede3

OCTOBER 28, 2021

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2021;31(10)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33616/lam.31.030


[On 31 August 2021, the European Society of Cardiology published its guideline “Prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice”. This guideline provides a comprehensive review about risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, their assessment, potential modifiers, treatment and prevention of the cardiovascular disease itself at societal and individual levels respectively. The previous guideline issued 2016, had to be updated due to the recent significant advances in risk prediction of cardiovascular disease on atherosclerotic background and due to the beneficial effects of treatment, emerging new drugs and therapeutic targets. The risk assessment system has undergone a major overhaul and now predicts the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events together over a 10-year horizon and over a lifetime. In the new guideline, age plays a more important role in risk classification than before. The risk assessment and staged management of apparently healthy people or patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and other specific diseases or conditions are detailed. The positive impact of influencing risk factors, the years of life gained can recently be presented in a lifetime perspective, which will help to make an individually tailored decision on the extent of interventions, taking into account also the patient'’s preferences.]


  1. Érgondnok Rendelôház, Sopron
  2. Valyterápia Egészségügyi És Szolgáltató Bt., Gyôr
  3. Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Klinikai Központ, Kardiológiai Tanszék



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[Telephone hotline crisis intervention during the Covid-19 pandemic]

TÓTH Mónika Ditta

[The COVID-19 pandemic and the successive restrictive measures are placing a huge psychological burden on the population worldwide. Isolation, narrowing of social relationships, constant fear, and the illness itself contributed to the development of various mental disorders. The mental strain on healthcare workers, in addition to their heavy physical workload is also a particular problem. In this situation, easily accessible, telephone counselling services, which does not require physical meeting, are one of the most important resources for mental health intervention worldwide. The present study demonstrates the mental challenges caused by the pandemic, the brief history of telephone crisis care, and studies about its effectiveness. In addition, this study focuses on the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on using of telephone counselling services. Several countries are presented with significantly increased use of these services. Finally, the Hungarian situa­tion is demonstrated with the nature of COVID-19 related calls of the Hungarian hotline service. ]

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[Hyperinflammation and its modulation in critically ill Covid-19 patients]


[The COVID-19 pandemic has claimed the life of millions worldwide in 2020. The most common cause of fatal outcome is the severe respiratory syndrome or multiple organ failure. The dysregulated immune response of the body plays probably an important role in the pathomechanism of this process like in the generalised sepsis. In particular, serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated during the progressing disease, which may suggest if the treatment with pharmaceuticals like monoclonal antibodies or the binding of circulating cytokines by extracorporeal, non-selective hemoadsorption have a be­neficial effect on the course of the dis­ease and its outcome respectively. The current review aims to provide a brief summary of our knowledge about the role of cytokines and immunomodulatory treatment in Co­vid-19.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Ways of treatment in traditional, complementary and integrative medicine of COVID-19]

SZÔKE Henrik, DARÓCZI Zoltán, VERZÁR Zsófia

[This study presents the results and expert opinions about the most important, amply evidence based, most widespread and af­fordable therapeutic procedures and supp­lementary preparations, which may support or and possibly replace conventional treatments. Traditional, complementary, and integrative medicine offers a number of options to enhance physical, psychic and mental resilience that may also be useful in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 patients. It will be worthwhile to analyse the evidences of clinical experiences on potential benefits. This brief summary might serve as a useful starting point for further research on this topic.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Mental and physical health in light of health behaviours among sexual and gender minorities]

GUBÁN Zsuzsanna, CSEKÔ Csilla, SZÉL Zsuzsanna

[In a large proportion the reason behind enlisting both primary and secondary care are psychophysiologic disorders or symp­toms. In this current study we reviewed the literature regarding the physical and mental health of a subpopulation (sexual and gender minorities) and their patterns of health behavior. The literature examined in our study contains publications from January of 2009 to March of 2019. Based on the minority stress theory and the biopsychosocial model, the people from sexual and gender minorities face increased level of stress which affects their health and health behaviour in a negative way. Because of the factors mentioned above this group is more exposed to certain illnesses than the majority society – such conditions are cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases and several types of tumors and cancer. Furthermore the excess stress affects their psychological wellbeing and mental health. Summarizing the literature regarding the health and health behavior of people belonging to sexual and gender minorities our aim was to create an inventory of information for health care workers to help enhance the quality of care the members of these minorities receive. It could also support developement of cultural competence for the circle of professionals in education, law enforcement agencies, social care and health care system, in additional it might decreas health inequity.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

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Background - The aim of this study was to compare ischemic stroke subtypes with the effects of risk factors, the relationship between grades of kidney disease and the severity of stroke subtypes. Methods - The current study was designed retrospectively and performed with data of patients who were hospitalised due to ischemic stroke. We included 198 subjects who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke of Grade 3 and above with chronic kidney disease. Results - In our study were reported advanced age, coronary artery disease, moderate kidney disease as the most frequent risk factors for cardioembolic etiology. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and alcohol consumption were the most frequent risk factors for large-artery disease. Female sex and anaemia were the most frequent risk factors for small-vessel disease. Dialysis and severe kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors in unknown etiologies, while male sex, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke and mild kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors for other etiologies. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were lower for small-vessel disease compared with other etiologies. This relation was statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusion - In order to improve the prognosis in ischemic stroke with chronic kidney disease, the risk factors have to be recognised and the treatment options must be modified according to those risk factors.

Clinical Neuroscience

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Lege Artis Medicinae

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