Lege Artis Medicinae

[By the Chronicler’s Eyes]

NEMESI Zsuzsanna

FEBRUARY 14, 2014

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2014;24(01-02)

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KÁLMÁN János, PAPP Edina, PÁKÁSKI Magdolna

[The early stage of dementia, the diagnostic and clinical importance of prodromal stages of dementia have been increasingly recognised in the past few years. Nowa - days, simple, rapid, easy to use cognitive screening tests are available, such as the recently developed Early Mental Test and the standardised Mini-Mental State Exami - nation, Clock Drawing Test, which could help general practicioners in the recommended regular dementia screening. The aim of this review is to help general practicioners understand the nature and importance of prodromal and manifest stages of dementia syndromes, and to summarise the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of dementia screening tests that can be used in primary care. In addition, practical hints are also integrated regarding the diagnosis, screening and referral of persons with high risk for dementia.]

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[Actualities in the epidemiology, diagnostics and therapy of Clostridium difficile infections - a European outlook]

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[Despite of the facts that Clostridium difficile has been accepted as an enteral pathogen since 1978 and during the past years we have learned a lot about its pathogenic toxins and about diagnostic possibilites, this pathogen has not attracted major interest until the early 2000s. The rapid increase of nosocomial diarrhoea caused by some hypervirulent ribotypes of C. difficile in a number of countries, followed by the increased number of community-acquired cases and the appearance of new risk factors besides antibiotic-related diarrhoeas have put C. difficile infections (CDI) in the focus of research. The rapid and correct diagnosis of the hospital or community acquired diarrhoeas enables clinicians to discontinue - if possible - the usage of the antibiotic therapy responsible for the symptoms, to start treatment early and introduce hospital hygiene measures as soon as possible. The aim of this article is similar to that of the “CDI Europe Report”, an initiative led by European experts: to draw attention on the importance of C. difficile infections in Hungary and in Europe by summarising the latest epidemiological data, the recommended diagnostic algorithm, therapeutic options and the importance of local and national surveillance and infection control measures in hospitals. Clostri]

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[The COVID-19 infection that started in December 2019 in China became a pandemic. Initially, the publications were dealing with respiratory symptoms, but later on other non-specific, pandemic related syndromes were discussed in the medical literature, among them more and more ophthalmological symptoms. Essential ophthalmological knowledge is important since the air-born droplet infection is invading generally the mucous membranes. Conjunctiva is the most important mucous membrane of the eyes. Viral particles colonising the conjunctiva reach the nose by the tears and are spreading to the nasopharynx and finally the respiratory system, which is an alternative, ophthalmological way of the invasion. Nevertheless, more researcher doubt this ophthalmic route of the infection. The present study overviews the most im­portant ophthalmological and neurooph­thal­mological symptoms and syndromes. Intensive care units focus on maintaining the vital functions, however for saved patients there is very important the prevention or early therapy of ophthalmological complications.]