Lege Artis Medicinae

[Beta blockers for the treatment of chronic heart failure]

ROSTÁS László

OCTOBER 20, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(10)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Heart massage is priority - New guidelines in resuscitation]

MATOS Lajos

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Effect of beta blockers in hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and metabolic syndrome]

BENCZÚR Béla

[Beta-blockers are among the most widely used drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the mid-90’s, these drugs were recommended as first-line therapies of hypertension. With the introduction of new drugs, the list of first-choice drugs has been extended. The results of recently published major hypertension trials, which compared conventional agents (beta blockers and/or diuretics) with newer agents (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, Caantagonists, angiotensin receptor blockers), raised concerns regarding the role of beta blockers in cardiovascular primary prevention. Subsequently, a metaanalysis of 13 trials has shown that compared with other drug types, beta-blocker therapy is less beneficial in patients with hypertension who do not have heart disease. Nevertheless, in cardiovascular indications other than hypertension (acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and arrhythmias), betablockers retain their dominant position.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Antibiotic treatment of intra-abdominal infections, focusing on secondary peritonitis]

PULAY István, KONKOLY THEGE Marianne

[The morbidity and lethality of intra-abdominal infections are still high. Their first-line therapies include surgical or image-guided interventions. Adjuvant therapy with a broad-spectrum antibiotic is crucial for the treatment of polymicrobial infections. As initiation of the therapy is urgent, the antibiotic must be chosen empirically. Pathogens of community-acquired and nosocomial intra-abdominal infections are greatly different. The type of microbes, the general status of the patients, and the severity of their disease determine the choice of antibiotic or antibiotic combination. Using an adequate initial antibiotic decreases postoperative mortality and morbidity. Emerging new pathogens and the resistance of known germs against multiple antibiotics complicates the selection of the antiinfective therapy. Tigecycline is a new tetracyclin-derivative that offers a novel therapeutic option owing to its broad spectrum and efficiency against “problematic bacteria”. The current guidelines facilitate the selection of an empirical therapy, but they do not replace the individualised therapeutic approach.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Insulin pump therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus]

KIS János Tibor, KAUTZKY László, GROSZ Andrea

Lege Artis Medicinae

[In vitro sensitivity of human anaerobic pathogenic bacteria for tigecycline and comparative antibiotics in Hungary - Prospective multicentre trial]

NAGY Erzsébet, URBÁN Edit, JAKAB Gabriella, SZIKRA Lenke, MISZTI Cecília, SZABÓ Judit

[INTRODUCTION - Tigecycline, the first member of the glycylcycline family of antibiotics, is a semisynthetic derivative of minocycline. The modified tetracycline nucleus is protected against the resistance mechanisms that inactivate tetracyclines, thus tigecycline is expected to be effective against tetracycline- resistant strains. The aim of this multicenter survey, performed in 2007 and 2008 by three Hungarian laboratories, was to examine the efficiency of this drug against antianaerobic bacteria in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS - The participating laboratories isolated 540 strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria from various infectious sites. These sites represent the classes of infections for which tigecycline was recently approved as a treatment option (skin and soft tissue and intra-abdominalinfections), or for which it will be licensed in the near future (lower respiratory tract infections). Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility was performed by Etest, and the efficiencies of six antibiotics were determined using MIC values. RESULTS - The 540 strains belonged to 33 different species. Of the 104 strains of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci, 100% proved to be susceptible to tigecycline. Similarly, 98% of the examined Clostridium strains showed susceptibility to this antibiotic. Two of the 56 Prevotella strains were resistant against tigecycline. MIC50 and MIC90 values in the 280 Bacteroides strains were 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively, whereas only 1.8% of the tested strains showed low resistance. CONCLUSION - Similarly to the findings of international surveys, our results show that tigecycline is effective against the great majority (97.4% susceptibility) of relevant anaerobic bacteria that are isolated from skin and soft tissue, intra-abdominal and lower respiratory tract infections. Thus, empiric use of tigecycline is recommended in any infections where anaerobic bacteria alone or a mixed flora of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are likely to be present.]

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[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Acute effect of sphenopalatine ganglion block with lidocaine in a patient with SUNCT

KOCATÜRK Mehtap, KOCATÜRK Özcan

Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing/short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with cranial autonomic features (SUNCT/SUNA) is a rare severe headache. At the time of an attack, it can hinder a patient from eating and requires acute intervention. The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion with both sensory and autonomic fibers. Sphenopalatine ganglion block has long been used in the treatment of headache, particularly when conventional methods have failed. Here, we present a patient who was resistant to intravenous lidocaine, but responded rapidly to sphenopalatine ganglion block during an acute episode of SUNCT/SUNA.

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A rare entity of acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis which has been successfully treated with pulse steroid therapy: Does the histopathology predict the treatment response?

ÖKTEM Özdemir Ece, ÇANKAYA Şeyda, UYKUR Burak Abdullah, ERDEN Simsek Nazan, YULUG Burak

Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis is an uncommon sweating disorder characterized by loss of sweating in the absence of any neurologic, metabolic or sweat gland abnormalities. Although some possible immunological and structural mechanisms have been proposed for this rare entity, the definitive pathophysiology is still un­clear. Despite some successfully treated cases with systemic corticosteroid application, the dose and route of steroid application are controversial. Here, we present a 41-year-old man with lack of genera­lised sweating who has been successfully treated with high dose pulse intravenous prednisolone. We have discussed his clinical and histopathological findings as well as the treatment options in view of the current literature.