Lege Artis Medicinae

[Applying musical tools in healing children]

KOLLÁR János

JUNE 20, 2018

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2018;28(04-05)

[The aim of the study is drawing the attention to the possibilities of applying musical tools in healing children. After doing research in main medical databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline) some research works were discovered and harmonized in which the researchers give proof of the effectiveness of music therapies implemented in therapeutic circumstances and by proper experts on medical fields. The study focuses on the following topics: applying music for reducing stress caused by medical interventions and hospitalization, treating speech disturbances, improving communication and social abilities of autistic children, improving capabilities of people suffering from visual and hearing impairment, providing help during anaesthesia, stimulating different parts of the brain in children suffering from PDOC (Prolonged Disorder of Consciousness), improving capabilities of children living with disabilities and helping creating harmonic relationship between children, their parents and the healing staff. ]

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[The identification of anxious patiens is not always an easy task. The diagnose is clear in that case, when the symptoms (psychic or somatic) are evident or/and patients complain about anxiety. Anxiety itself is not a pathological symptom if it is adequate in strength and duration. Anxiety reactions have large individual variety -, they are pathological if inadequate and irrelevante and don’t match with the actual situation. According to epidemilogical data one third of patients of family doctors suffer from anxiety but somatic symptoms come to the front, so the patients participate in a great number of medical examinations. It is important to emphasise that medical examinations are necessary to preclude the possibility of any somatic disease. The di­ag­nostic criteria of DSM-5. are an excellent assistance for a good diagnosis. Anxiety is a risk factor for cardiological diseases and diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of anxiety disorders are 12.6-17.2%. Anxiety di­sorders are well-manageable, they need complex therapy: benzodiazepines, antidepressants, hypnotics and psychotherapy. They frequently co-exist with depression and insomnia so they have to be treated together. ]

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[“Vires unitae agunt” - way of the unification: medical professionalization in 18-19. centuries Hungary]

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[European and Hungarian medicine and its representatives changed a lot between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. The varied ’medical market’ altered significantly from the eighteenth century. The acts of the enlightened absolutism, which were attentive to the health of the citizens and the public, set up those processes, which led to modern medical education and medical professionalization. During this process, some kind of healers were raised out of craftsmen, folk healers (such as surgeons, pharmacists, midwives, veterinarians), others were supplanted (for Example sellers of essential oils). After the initiation from above, doctors of medicine and masters of surgery became self-conscious in the Hungarian Reform Era, first forms of self-organization, as so the demand of professional retraining and discussions appeared via the new journals, associations and assemblies. The biggest question was the liquidation and the unification of the dual education of doctors of medicine and masters of surgery, which descended from the Middle Ages, but became obsolete, thanks to the new achievements of the medicine and surgery. The two were united in 1872, when the title doctor medicinae universalis set up. The Public Health Act of Hungary in 1876 (Art. XIV) and the independent la­bour organizations of doctors (for Example the Associations of Doctors in Budapest and in the countryside, which were established in 1897) promoted the formation of the modern medical profession. ]

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[The Hungarian literature has quite ignored so far Noyes & Clancy’s Role Theory approach of dying. I present the outline and a critique of this conception, then lay the foundations of a reformed concept of the dying role. For the optimal and desired dying role is not one of peripherising and objectifying, rather one of placing the dying in the centre of the system of relations and roles radically restructuring under the influence of such role. The personality of the dying remains a true value in this central position. The reintegration of the dying can begin parallel to her disintegration by the progressive loss of her normal social roles (‘the loneliness of the dying’). Death can thus transform into a social phenomenon. I illustrate the argumentation on the central dying role with a case study using the method of a heterophenomenological, second-person character. By promoting the central and autonomous dying role, i.e. by the development of the necessary social role competences, or at least by publicising the thanatological knowledge, death can turn from an avoided, socially disintegrative taboo into a phenomenon that can strengthen the community even after the dying departed.]

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