Lege Artis Medicinae

[“A Suggestive Force is Needed to Cure” A Discussion with Internist Professor András Leövey]

SZEKANECZ Zoltán

MARCH 21, 2008

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2008;18(03)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cure Without Borders]

FÖLDES Mária Éva

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Interdisciplinarity, workplace stress, holistic management]

SZABÓ Nóra, SZABÓ Gábor, HEGEDÛS Katalin

[INTRODUCTIONS – The physical and psychological condition of health care professionals dealing with the seriously ill is worse than that of those caring for not seriously ill patients. This may be due to the nurses' dissatisfaction, vital exhaustion, workplace stress, social support and the degree of professional and social adjudication. The aim of the survey is to comparatively investigate two groups dealing with the seriously ill – hospice nurses and nurses caring for elderly patients. Hypothesis: hospice nurses are in a more favourable position than nurses caring for elderly patients in terms of satisfaction, vital exhaustion, social support, the degree of workplace stress and professional and social acknowledgement as well. SUBJECTS AND METHODS – The survey was performed among hospice nurses (N=25) and nurses caring for elderly patients (N=50) using a self-assessment questionnaire. The inventory comprised questions related to demographical, professional and social acknowledgement and questionnaires on satisfaction, vital exhaustion, social support and workplace stress. RESULTS – In terms of social support hospice nurses are clearly in a more favourable position than those caring for elderly patients. Workplace stress is higher among nurses caring for elderly patients than that of hospice nurses thus the adverse effects of workplace stressors will more readily appear among nurses working with the elderly. CONCLUSION – The interdisciplinary approach of hospice, the acceptance and inclusion of professionals from fields other than nursing and medicine into the practical care may promote holistic care and the acceptance and acknowledgement of nurses. The greater social support may reduce the nurses’ degree of workplace stress and thus the adverse consequences of workplace stressors. Therefore in the future interdisciplinarity should be extended, communication between specialties should be encouraged within the care for the elderly and – as a matter of fact – on each level and field of the health care system.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The aims and latest results of clinical toxicological analysis]

RÓNA Kálmán

[Almost 80 percent of poison-related deaths are caused by drugs. The overwhelming majority of today's clinical toxicological work is comprised of cases of toxic level drug overdose, drug mixups, adverse effects during therapeutic drug administration, as well as intoxication from drug abuse. A prerequisite of adequate therapy of intoxication is the qualitative and quantitative determination of the compounds causing it. The two elements of systematic toxicological analysis are the screening test and the confirmatory test. The review touches on the toxicologic use of the hyphenated chromatographic-spectroscopic instruments and on the alternative biological matrices. It is known that the effects and toxic side-effects of many drugs show substantial interindividual differences even in the same doses. One of the possible causes of this phenomenon is a genetically determined polymorphic drug metabolism. Some pharmacogenetically determined anomalies in drug administration, particularly enzyme inhibition and induction, are of clinical toxicological importance.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Scientific Digest]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcer]

RÁCZ István

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Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cure Without Borders]

FÖLDES Mária Éva

Clinical Neuroscience

Valproic acid associated pleuropericardial effusion: case report

DEMIR Figen Ulku

Introduction - Valproic acid is an effective antiepileptic and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although there are frequently seen side effects, effusions between layers of pleural and pericardial membranes are rare to be seen. Case - Pleuropericardial effusion was detected in a 23 years old woman who was under valproic acid treatment because of epileptic seizure. After 1 year of valproic acid treatment, patient complained of dyspnea. As all the researches intended on etiology were usual, valproic acid has been thought to be responsible for the matter. Control examination after 1.5 months regarding the end of treatment revealed complete recovery of pleuropericardial effusion. Discussion - Pleural and pericardial effusions are rarely seen complications related to the use of valproic acid. It must also be kept in mind that valproic acid causes a potential for such side effects which can be blamed etiologically when the other possibilities for patients are excluded.

Clinical Neuroscience

Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to a jugular foramen schwannoma

ÖZTOP-CAKMAK Özgür, VANLI-YAVUZ Ebru, AYGÜN Serhat, BASTAN Birgül, EGEMEN Emrah, SOLAROGLU Ihsan, GURSOY-OZDEMIR Yesemin

Introduction – Although the involvement of the hypoglossal nerve together with other cranial nerves is common in several pathological conditions of the brain, particularly the brainstem, isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare condition and a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation – The presented patient arrived to the hospital with a history of slurred speech and an uncomfortable sensation on his tongue. Neurological examination showed left-sided hemiatrophy of the tongue with fasciculations and deviation towards the left side during protrusion. Based on the clinical and MRI findings, a diagnosis of hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was made. Discussion – Hypoglossal nerve palsy may arise from multiple causes such as trauma, infections, neoplasms, and endocrine, autoimmune and vascular pathologies. In our case, the isolated involvement of the hypoglossal nerve was at the skull base segment, where the damage to the hypoglossal nerve may occur mostly due to metastasis, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, nerve sheath tumors and glomus tumors. Conclusion – Because of the complexity of the region’s anatomy, the patient diagnosed with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was referred for gamma knife radiosurgery.