Lege Artis Medicinae

[A forgotten physician in the history of Hungarian Psychiatry. Dr. Ferenc Klein’s biography]

SZABÓ József1,2

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2020;30(08-09)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33616/lam.30.033

[The Psychiatry Department of St. Raphael’s Hospital in Zala County celebrated its 110th anniversary last year. This important anniversary raised the idea of studying deeper than usual the life of our professional ancestors. We tried to discover the personality, character, and oeuvre of our first appointed chief physician Ferenc Klein while using historical recollections and press articles published by our county, city and hospital. An image of a prominent physician, psychiatrist, patriot and individual was emerging before our very eyes by processing the available sources. As a pulmonologist, a field surgeon, or a psychiatrist he was able to meet the expectations of his age. He was highly appreciated by his patients and the people of Zalaegerszeg. Despite his significant oeuvre and martyrdom, he sank in oblivion and his name was not preserved either in the history of psychiatry or in the general memory. In the present study, we want to commemo­rate him by collecting and publishing his biography. ]


  1. Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem, Bölcsészet- és Társadalomtudományi Kar, Szociológiai Intézet
  2. Zala Megyei Szent Rafael Kórház, Mentálhigiénés Központ, Inszomnia Szakrendelés



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[Thyroid disorders are very frequent not only among endocrine diseases but also the general conditions. Every clinician, regardless of their specialty, meet patients with thyroid disorders during their everyday practice. While diagnostic and therapeutic options remained almost unchanged in the past decade, there are several inten­sively researched topics in the patient’s care, advances of which we ought to familiarize ourselves with. In this present paper we sought out to cover three of these fiercly discussed topics. ]

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[Nociceptive, neuropathic and central me­chanisms are involved in the perception, transmission and processing of chronic pain and shaping of cerebral pain image. Alar­mins – molecules alarming defence and signing the presence of pathogens and tissue damage - trigger a series of pathogenic events resulting in inflammatory pain stimuli. Proinflammatory cytokines play a determining role in the pain perception at the level of the nervous system. Continuous inflammatory stimuli while sensitizing the periferic and central neurons activate the pain-related cerebral areas and develop the complex pain image, the pain matrix. Ce­reb­ral functional connections are operating in networks and can be visualized by functional MRI. Cytokines activate the neurons directly or indirectly by other neuromediators. Cytokine receptors are expressed on no­ciceptors and even on higher-level neurons and on various non-neural cells, such as microglia and astrocytes. The most ubiquitous cytokines are the Tumour Necrosis Factor and Interleukin 6 in the nervous sys­tem. The signaling pathways are the Nuclear Factor κB and the Janus-kinase enzyme system. The proinflammatory cytokines and the Janus-kinase are therefore primary therapeutic targets. Anti-cytokine biologicals and small molecular kinase inhibitors decrease the pain and improve functional activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Decrease of pain was more pronounced than expected only from the decrease of the clinical biomarkers of inflammation. The early and ra­pid painkiller effect of targeted biological and chemical-biological response modifiers is attributed to their direct analgesic effect on the brain.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Case report about the choice of care at Olajág Elderly Home in Budapest during the COVID-19 epidemic in spring 2020]

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[Frequency and risk factors of “de novo” tumors after kidney transplantation ]


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Lege Artis Medicinae

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Lege Artis Medicinae

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