Lege Artis Medicinae

[A doctor who will be remembered: Gustav Rau]


FEBRUARY 20, 2001

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2001;11(02)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of steroid hormones in the protection against oxidative stress]


[The incidence of vascular diseases increases in postmenopausal women. This negative trend seems to be controllable favourably by hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Based on the free radical mediated mechanism of atherogenesis the authors try to find the reasons for these observations on the basis of their and others’ data. They consider the increase of activity and amount of neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxydase by certain steroid particulars one of the most important elements of the vasoprotective effect of HRT. This increase diminishes the production of superoxide anion by the inhibition of the NADPH-oxidase enzyme. The observation proved firstly by the authors, that the plasma levels of myeloperoxydase - and so the ability for the inhibition of superoxide anion production by neutrophils - decreases in elderly people, might explain the higher incidence of some free radical mediated illnesses in the elderly. The authors also give a short review of antioxidant effects of steroids in general.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of vitrectomy in the management of diabetic retinopathy in proliferative stage]


[Vitrectomy is a closed microsurgical technique, by which intraocular tissue, blood and foreign bodies can be removed through a small incision in the pars plana with an automated suction-cutting device (vitrectom), while maintaining normal or slightly elevated intraocular pressure. This technique requires many accessory instruments (microscope, endoillumination, intraocular instruments, endolaser). The main application of vitrectomy is the treatment of severe complications in diabetes mellitus: diabetic retinopathy in the proliferative stage. Vitrectomy is indicated in diabetic retinopathy for the removal of intraocular bleeding and for the treatment of complications of diabetic proliferative vitreoretinopathy (recurring bleeding, tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment). In the case of intraocular bleeding, early vitrectomy is better than delayed, providing good visus (V: 0,5) in 25% of all patients (based on literature data). In retinal detachment cases of tractional origin, surgery provides satisfactory visus for self-care in 2/3rd of all patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Alphabetic index 1991-2000]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[„There should be someone to hold the hand of the dying!” Deep interviews on the difficulties of caring for the dying]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Gastrointestinal stromal tumor]


[Gastrointestinal stromal tumors were subject of much controversy in the last decades. This type of tumors was delineated from the leiomyoma - leiomyosarcoma group. GISTs show variable histological picture, moreover, they are capable of dual (neurogen and myogen) differentiation as it is proved by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. These tumors have relatively good prognosis, only 10-30% of them is malignant, although it is difficult to predict their behaviour in a given case. The most reliable signs of malignancy - cytological pleoimorphism, high mitotic activity, proliferation index above 10 %, and aneuploid DNA content - are generally accepted. The treatment of choice is excision, but not enucleation. Radical surgery is not necessary, since lymph node metastasis is exceptionally rare. Further investigations revealed electronmicroscopical and immunohistochemical (CD 34, CD 117) similarities of tumor cells and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) located in the wall of the bowel. The results of these investigations led to the theory that cells of GIST and ICCs are of the same stem cell origin. Molecular genetic studies are also of great help in the differential diagnosis and in predicting the prognosis of GISTs. Mutations in the c-kit gene can not be detected in leiomyomas, so they are thougt to be specific for GISTs. Mutation of exon 11. of chromosome 4. is observed only in malignant GISTs.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

VOKÓ Zoltán

[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Ask your doctor!]


LAM Extra for General Practicioners



[Various medical associations issue different recommendations for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. These significant differences are partly explained by the different definition of normal vitamin D level and the use of completely different mathematical models to predict the increase in vitamin D level as a response to therapy. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the target vitamin D level is 20 ng/ml, whereas the Endocrine Society (ES) recommends 30 ng/m as the miminum target value. According to the ES, a 1 ng/ml increase of vitamin D level can be reached by a daily intake of 100 NE, while the IOM recommends 3.6 ng/ml. Moreover, the IOM states that the effect of therapy on serum level is nonlinear. These differences show that the ES and IOM have different views on the risk of adverse effects. The IOM recommends 400 IU vitamin D daily for children younger than 1 year, 800 IU for those above 70 years and 600 IU/per day for everyone else. The ES recommend 400-1000 IU daily for all infants and 1500- 2000 IU for adults. Screening, however, is not recommended by either society. To decrease uncertainty concerning the side effects of higher-dose vitamin D treatment, it is important to understand, use and support the function of the pharmacovigilance system of the pharmaceutical industry that manufactures and markets various (prescription, over-the-counter) preparations. This is what the author aims to highlight in the second part of this article. Using this system, both the doctor and the patient can help support and accept the justification of higher-dose vitamin D therapy.]

Clinical Oncology

[Actual place and role of communication in Hungarian oncology]

MUSZBEK Katalin, GAAL Ilona

[The move to shared decision model from the patriarchal model of doctor-patient relationship is a communication challenge for doctors and patients as well. Communication is extremely important in Oncology, because the suggestive effect of every action of doctors and nurses is outstanding in this fi eld of healthcare. This burden has to urge professionals to self-improvement. One of the most important success of the Doctor-Patient Relationship program of the Hungarian Hospice Foundation since its launch in 2014 is the statement of two clinical centres on the importance of communication skills in everyday praxis, and engaging themselves in self-improvement. The successful cooperation also depends on patients and their care-givers not just on professionals. To gain all the necessary information is a learning process for them; even as to fi nd out the depth of information and decision level they wish. The patient who is satisfied with his or her own communication in healthcare is less distressed than the one who feels like adrifting. That gives the sense of achievement to professionals as well.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Informations for the candidates of the title of ”Doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Science”]