Lege Artis Medicinae

[38th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes]


AUGUST 20, 2002

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2002;12(08)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Quality assessment in the management of acute coronary syndromes]


[INTRODUCTION AND METHODS - Quality monitoring activities are essential for improving the care of acute coronary patients. The aim of our study was to establish a registry and assess the adherence to widely used quality indicators. We investigated two groups of patients, those admitted to our Intensive Care Unit with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (Group 1) and unstable angina (Group 2). RESULTS - Group 1. consisted of 173 patients, of whom 60% was eligible for thrombolysis. In 5 cases no acute reperfusion therapy was done. For reperfusion we used systemic thrombolysis in 74% and primary coronary angioplasty in 26%. The prehospital delay was 150 minutes, the ”door-to-needle” time and the ”door-toballoon” time were 30 minutes and 102 minutes, respectively. 95% of the patients received aspirin, 79% beta-blocker, 82% angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and 39% cholesterol lowering medications. Group 2. included 84 patients, most of them had high risk features according to the Braunwald classification and the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association guideline. Coronary angiography was performed in 80 cases. Regarding revascularization, 43 patients underwent coronary bypass surgery, 30 percutan angioplasty with stent implantation in 18. In this group aspirin was given in 82, unfractionated heparin in 9, low molecular weight heparin in 49, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor in 15 cases. 21 patients received intravenous nitroglycerin, 70 patients betablocker and 57 patients cholesterol lowering drugs. DISCUSSION - Quality management is extremely useful in assessing our practice, our shortcomings and developments.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[ESPS-2 (European Stroke Prevention Study 2)]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of endothelial dysfunction and possibilities of its treatment in chronic heart failure]


[Endothelial cells - under autocrine and paracrine control - may have a central role in the regulation of vascular tone. Endothelial dysfunction is a very early sign of heart failure but the clinical consequence is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that upregulation of the neuro-endocrine-, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system would lead to increased tissue- and circulating angiotensin-II levels. Elevated concentration of angiotensin-II provides a mechanism by which vasomotor responses to nitric oxide, prostaglandins are blunted, while the effects of vasoconstrictors such as thromboxans, endothelin and chatecholamins are enhanced. The higher basal vascular tone leads to the degeneration and atrophy of skeletal muscle, moreover to the the ischaemic damage of myocardial cells. Because renin-angiotensinaldosterone system is under genetic control, the deleterious effects of angiotensin-II depends on the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. Pharmacological attempts to counteract endothelial dysfunction in heart failure may include the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, which can potentially improve the endothel dependent vasodilatation response. The importance of measuring endothelial function by non-invasive techniques is yet unknown, thus, before we introduce the widespread testing of patients for endothelial function, more research has to be done.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Gestational diabetes mellitus and neuropathy: examining the relationship]


[BACKGROUND - Little is known about the relationship between gestational diabetes and late diabetes complications. The relationship between these abnormalities was investigated in this study. PATIENTS, METHODS - Besides reclassification of their glucose tolerance, the prevalence and correlating factors of diabetic neuropathy were evaluated in 123 gestational diabetic (GDM) women controlled prior by our team during their pregnancies. 26 pregestational type 2 diabetic patients served as controls. Mean follow-up time was 7.2 years. Vibration perception threshold was measured to diagnose peripheral neuropathy, while cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was evaluated using the battery of four cardiovascular reflex-tests. RESULTS - From 123 prior GDM women, 63 were characterized as having diabetes (52.9%), while 14 had impaired glucose tolerance (11.8%). Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed in 23.6 %, parasympathetic neuropathy in 37.4 %, while sympathetic neuropathy was confirmed in 7.3 % of the patients evaluated during follow-up visit. Association between abnormal glucose tolerance and neuropathy was statistically significant only in the case of parasympathetic neuropathy (p=0.0001), and this relationship was independent from elevated BMI, microalbuminuria and the higher rate of hypertension observed in these women (p=0.006). Since the number of abnormal neuropathy tests were also higher than expected in women with normal glucose tolerance, we hypothetised a cross-sectional link between neuropathy and insulin resistance. An additional analysis comfirmed this association between insulin resistance and parasympathetic neuropathy independent of metabolic status of these patients (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS - The importance of gestational diabetes, which is sometimes underestimated by many clinicians, was highlighted by our study since it projected a high frequency of parasympathetic cardiovascular neuropathy in these patients. This form of diabetes not only projects the development of late onset type 2 diabetes, but could also act as a predictor of late diabetes complications. According to our results diabetic parasympathetic neuropathy may be linked to type 2 diabetes/ insulin resistance syndrome, and could play a role in the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Drog prevention]


All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Comment to the article titled “Exploratory study of outcomes of blood sample mass examinations by rank correlations”]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The author’s response to the comment on “Exploratory study of outcomes of blood sample mass examinations by rank correlations”]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]