LAM Extra for General Practicioners



DECEMBER 15, 2011

LAM Extra for General Practicioners - 2011;3(05)

[The mechanism of blood glucose lowering action of sulphonylureas, their advantages and potencial risks are overviewd in the article. The author delineates the present place of the sulphonylurea group in the antihyperglycemic therapy of type 2 diabetes, listing possibilities of monotherapeutic as well as combined applications. It is emphasized that traditional insulin-secretagogue compounds have their place in the therapy of type 2 diabetes even beside of the new, incretin-type secretagogues.]



Further articles in this publication

LAM Extra for General Practicioners



[The recognition of ECG artefacts is becoming increasingly important for physicians working in the field of internal medicine. At the same time, however, very little information about artefacts is published in either articles or textbooks. The authors provide a summary of the generation, types and recognition of ECG artefacts. The aim of the article is to draw the attention of clinicians to the dangers of this increasingly common phenomenon. Unrecognised artefacts can often prompt further (unnecessary) investigations and may result in establishing wrong diagnosis as well as erroneous treatment decisions.]

LAM Extra for General Practicioners



[The occurrence of hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing. Recognising COPD is important in order to choose the appropriate antihypertensive drugs. Antihypertensive drugs that can be used to treat patients with hypertension and COPD include diuretics, ACE-inhibitors, angiotensine receptor blockers (AT1 receptor antagonists) and calcium antagonists, as well as cardioselective beta blockers, as these drugs decrease total and cardiovascular mortality. Of these agents, the importance of the most cardioselective one, nebivolol should be stressed, as this drug has no clinically significant effect on parameters of respiratory function, and, through its additional effects (namely by increasing the synthesis of NO), it has a beneficial effect on COPD-related deterioration of respiratory functions, haemodynamic alterations (cor pulmonale) and local factors that participate in the respiratory inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.]

LAM Extra for General Practicioners


KISS Zsófia, KIS János Tibor

[Metformin is currentlly the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its administration is limited by the contraindications and the possible gastrointestinal side effects. In Hungary, metformin is currently available in numerous forms, among which the extended-release tablets are distinguished because of their tolerability. The authors summarise the most recent data about the favourable features of metformin, help clinicians to choose the appropriate preparation of metformin, and highlight the administration procedures that help to avoid gastrointestinal side effects.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[30 years in diabetology reflected on the pages of Lege Artis Medicinae – 1990-2020]


[Commemorating the 30th anniversary of foundation the journal Lege Artis Me­di­cinae, the author endeavours to review the main developments of diabetology in the same period and arranges their reflections on the journal’s pages. He points out that similar to many other disciplines, the history of development has extremely been rich in the past three decades, thus he focused only on a few issues. The author analyses the changes in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and highlights specific aspects like the importance of early metabolic control, individualized treatment choices, a risk-oriented approach instead of a glucocentric direction, and the role of patient education and a health-conscious lifestyle, which have resulted in the holistic approach of our therapeutic strategy. While using relevant quotes, the author shows that the readers of the journal were also able to keep pace with all events and they were always provided with relevant information by au­thentic specialists of diabetology. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Subtype diagnosis, treatment, complications and outcomes of primary aldosteronism and future direction of research: a position statement and consensus of the Working Group on Endocrine Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension – excerpts]

KOVÁTS Viktória, ALFÖLDI Sándor

[Primary aldosteronism is a frequent cause of secondary hypertension requiring a specific pharmacological treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist or with unilateral adrenalectomy. These treatments have shown to reduce the excess of cardiovascular risk characteristically associated with this disease. In this consensus, we discussed the procedures for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, we address the strategies for the differential diagnosis of primary aldosteronism subtypes and therapy. We also discuss the evaluation of outcomes and provide suggestions for follow-up as well as cardiovascular and metabolic complications specifically associated with primary aldosteronism. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Prevalence and treatment of hypertension in patients with newly diagnosed familial hypercholesterolemia]

NÁDRÓ Bíborka, DIÓSZEGI Ágnes, KOVÁCS Beáta, PARAGH György, PÁLL Dénes, HARANGI Mariann

[Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited defect of cholesterol metabolism characterized by high plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease risk. Prevalence of hypertension in FH is not clarified, but its appearance is independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, optimal treatment has a major priority in this high-risk population. We aimed to investigate the lipid parameters and evaluate the presence of hypertension and its treatment characteristics in 86 newly diagnosed, untreated heterozygous FH patients (27 males, 59 females, mean age 53.6±13.4 years). We diagnosed FH by using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. The mean TC level was 8.49±1.7 mmol/l, the mean LDL-C level was 6.11±1.5 mmol/l, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 1.62±0.5 mmol/l, while the median lipoprotein (a) level was 301 mg/l. We diagnosed 33 FH patients (38.4%) with hypertension. Beta blockers were used in 23, ACE-inhibitors in 13, ARBs in 12, calcium channel blockers in 9, and HCT in 11 cases. 11 patients was treated with monotherapy, for 10 patients double, for 11 patients triple, while for 1 patient quadruple combined antihypertensive therapy was administered. Based on our results, hypertension might be underdiagnosed in this specific patient population. Neither the types nor the combination patterns of blood pressure lowering agents are in line with current guidelines. Up to date screening and treatment of hypertension should be worth considering in this extremely high risk population with enhanced atherosclerosis.]

Image challenge

What do you see on the feet of the diabetic patient?