LAM Extra for General Practicioners



JUNE 20, 2012

LAM Extra for General Practicioners - 2012;4(03)

[Diabetic foot syndrome is a characteristic late complication of diabetes mellitus. It can develop in patients with type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in case of a long duration of diabetes and sustained poor metabolic state. Diabetic neuropathy plays a pivotal role in the pathomechanism, but vascular symptoms might also contribute to the complex clinical picture. For making the diagnosis, evaluation of complaints, performing physical examination and using simple tests for identifying both distal, somatosensory neuropathy and potential angiopathy are of great importance. Therapeutic approaches aim to achieve proper glycaemic control, as well as to ameliorate symptoms of neuropathy, improve peripheral blood supply by medicines, angioplasty or intervention radiological methods, fight against infections and off-load the foot. Surgical intervention might also be necessary, and in severe cases, amputation might be needed. The diabetic foot syndrome increases mortality risk in patients with diabetes. Complaints related to diabetic foot syndrome are often resistant to treatment and tend to recur. Thus, prevention with long-term, good metabolic control and protection of the foot are of particular importance.]



Further articles in this publication

LAM Extra for General Practicioners



[Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal condition, which affects 10-15% of adults in developed countries. Recent observations have raised the possibility that disturbances in the gut microbiota and/or the accompanying low-grade inflammatory state might contribute to the etiology and symptomatology of irritable bowel syndrome. Some studies indicate that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), as confirmed by hydrogen breath tests (HBT), is more prevalent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome than in matched controls without IBS. Although the data are conflicting, this observation has led to the hypothesis that bacterial contamination was the primary cause of IBS. As a consequence of this hypothesis, a lot of therapeutic options have found their way into the armamentarium of those who treat patients with IBS. These agents include probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents. This paper describes the various mechanisms by which changes in the gut flora might contribute to IBS and also discusses the efficacy and safety of antibiotic therapies, especially rifaximin, for treating IBS/SIBO symptoms.]

LAM Extra for General Practicioners



[INTRODUCTION - Observational studies have verified that even in routine diabetes care, up to 1.3% reduction in HbA1c can be achieved with the initiation of a long-acting basal insulin analogue. We can get the same results in our patients using an insulin titration algorithm and close diabetological control. CASE REPORT - Metformin therapy of a 68-year old, moderately obese woman with type 2 diabetes was complemented by a long-acting basal insulin analogue (insulin glargine). Before initiation of insulin therapy, the patient received thorough dietetic and diabetic education by a qualified dietician and a diabetes nurse. The starting dose of insulin was 10 U, and then the patient was asked to increase the dose by 2 U every 3rd day depending on the mean of self-monitored fasting plasma glucose values in the previous 2 days. With the aid of a titration algorithm, optimal carbohydrate metabolism has been verified by laboratory parameters assessed 3 months later. CONCLUSION - Insulin self-titration based on appropriate patient education and close professional control makes a relatively simple therapeutic system the optimal decision in terms of a rapid and chronic normalisation of glucose control in a large patient group.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Lower / upper extremity F-wave ratio for detecting early diabetic neuropathy


Results of conventional nerve conduction studies may be within normal limits in early diabetic neuropathy. Previous studies demonstrated that F-wave latency should be used to detect this early neuropathic process. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of lower/upper extremity F latency ratios in detecting the early neuropathy in patients with diabetic neuropathic pain. 44 patients with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and 44 control subjects whose both conventional nerve conduction studies and F-wave latencies were within normal limits were included to the study. We compared the nerve conduction parameters and lower/upper extremity (tibial/ulnar) F latency ratios of the groups. Tibial F latency was significantly prolonged and tibial/ulnar F latency ratio was significantly higher in DNP group. Our results support that F-waves are useful for detecting early diabetic neuropathy and suggest that comparison with a control group will demonstrate a difference even when the individuals’ F-wave latencies are within the normal limits. The difference was significant for tibial but not for ulnar F latency values supporting the length dependent involvement. The tibial/ ulnar F-wave latency ratio was significantly higher in the DNP group, suggesting that it might also be useful to detect early neuropathy and to demonstrate that the underlying process was predominant in lower extremity. Further studies may provide additional information about the utility of this ratio for detecting early neuropathy even when F-wave latencies are within normal limits.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of continuous glucose monitoring in modern diabetes care]


[It is no exaggeration to say that there is a paradigm shift in the diabetes care. Since 2015, the driving force behind are primarily the widely spreading sensor technologies instead of the new insulin products and treatment regimens. The rapidly spreading sensor technologies are applied in more and more countries financially supported in type 1 diabetes since 2015. The use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM, tissue glucose sensor, simplified as sensor), which includes both real-time CGM (RT-CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM), has grown rapidly over the past few years by improving sensor accuracy, greater convenience and ease of use, and expanding support of reimbursement. Numerous studies have demonstrated the significant clinical benefits of using CGM in diabetic patients, regardless of the type of insulin treatment. In this summary, we review the practical aspects of glucose monitoring, the optimal frequency of monitoring, the effectiveness, re­liability, and role of continuous glucose mo­­nitoring systems.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Beyond the blood sugar reduction. SGLT-2 inhibitors in kidney protection]


[Results of cardiovascular safety studies with SGLT-2 inhibitors have shown that in addition to their hypoglycaemic and beneficial cardiovascular effects, they are renoprotective. A number of mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce albuminuria and deterioration of renal function. Their nephroprotective effects extend over a very wide range of eGFR and albuminuria categories. In the DAPA-CKD study, dapagliflozin was shown to exert its nephroprotective effect regardless of the presence of diabetes and a baseline eGFR, while also having a beneficial effect on cardiovascular endpoints and mortality. Following the confirmation of favourable renal results for SGLT-2 inhibitors, it is no coincidence that they have been included in national and international recommendations for the treatment of chronic kidney disease.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Patient education and insulin treatment]


[Therapeutic patient education is a lifelong educational activity. As an approach focus­ed on the needs, values and therapeutic strategies of patients, it promotes an increase in patients’ knowledge and skills according to the disease, results in a better quality of life, increased therapeutic compliance and a decrease of complications. Patients become partners and health care providers become coaches. Many type-2 diabetes patients re­fuse insulin therapy, even when this modality of treatment is indicated. This paper aims to explore diabetic patients’ reasons of accepting insulin therapy and the initial barriers to its use, as well as relat­ed education requirements.]


[Bone mineral density and diabetes mellitus - First results]


[INTRODUCTION - Data on bone mineral density (BMD) in diabetes mellitus are contradictory in the literature. Early studies described a decreased bone mineral density in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but recent studies report no osteopenia in T1DM.The BMD may depend on the quality of treatment for diabetes mellitus and on the presence of chronic complications. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) the BMD is not decreased, occasionally it can even be increased. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Bone mineral density was measured in 122 regularly controlled diabetic patients (T1DM: n=73, mean age: 43.6±11.1 years,T2DM: n=49, mean age: 61.8±9.8 years) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and at the femur. Results were compared to those of 40 metabolically healthy control persons with a mean age of 47.5±11.9 years.The patients’ carbohydrate metabolism was assessed by the average HbA1c level of the last three years.These values were 7.9±1.4 % in T1DM, and 7.5±1.7 % in T2DM. BMDs were classified based on the T-score and Z-score using the WHO criteria. RESULTS - There was no significant difference in T1DM or in T2DM compared to the reference group in the prevalence of either osteoporosis or of osteoporosis and osteopenia combined. CONCLUSION - BMD was not found to be decreased in patients with well-controlled metabolism compared to healthy controls.]