Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Health care workers’ burnout during the COVID19 pandemic]

NÉMETH Anikó1,2, IRINYI Tamás3,2

APRIL 30, 2021

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice - 2021;34(2)

Journal Article

[The study aimed to assess the level of burnout, the stress caused by the COVID19 pandemic and the changes in the Hungarian health care system, furthermore to shed light on the connections between these factors. The cross-sectional study was conducted through a self-constructed online survey at the beginning of 2021. Nineteen-hundred-sixty-five answers were received and analysed with SPSS 23.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis tests and linear regressions were calculated (p<0.05). Severe burnout was present by 46.7% of the participants and they reported higher levels of workplace and personal stress compared to those with better psychological status (p<0,000). The main contributors of high levels of burnout were the fear of COVID19 contamination, taking care of the infected, elevated work load because of COVID19 sick-leaves, uncertainty of the payment of sick-leave, fear of taking the COVID19 home and the elevated levels of tension at home. The COVID19 pandemic put a great burden on the health care workers causing a decline in their basically bad psychological state. This was deepened by the new health care regulation introduced during the pandemic.]


  1. Szegedi Tudományegyetem Egészségtudományi és Szociális Képzési Kar
  2. MESZK Csongrád-Csanád Megyei Területi Szervezet
  3. Szegedi Tudományegyetem Pszichiátriai Klinika



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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The role of APN in Coping with the COVID-19 Pandemic]

KURUCZ Mária, SZABÓ Luca, KARÁCSONY Ilona, VARGA Bernadett, PAKAI Annamária

[Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, new challenges appeared in the field of the health care system all over the world and in Hungary as well. There has been a very high pressure on the workers and on the whole system too. We have been working with people who were diagnosed with Covid-19 since last March that is why we see all of the difficulties appearing in the hospitals. This publication is a literature review in which I examined the role of the APN during Covid-19 pandemic. We overviewed new, foreign literatures which I found on online databases using keywords. The biggest changes in the role of the APN were experienced in the USA and many of these can be transferred into the hungarian medical system too.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Medication Consumption Habits in the Elderly]

ERDŐSI Erika, JOÓ Gabriella, TULKÁN Ibolya, SZŰCS Mónika, BOROS Edit

[The goal was to evaluate the medication consumption behavior of the elderly in Southern Hungary, define the influencing factors, mainly which are related to the patients and the level of their knowledge. Data were obtained by a questionnaire. 196 patient over 60 years of age were involved who either took at least 1 ordered or over the counter drug or any other nutraceutical regularly. Data were analysed by Microsoft Excel and R software. The evaluated population had 3,51 chronic diseases in average and had taken 4,15 drugs daily. The majority connected the intake of medication to the daily routine or used the pill case. The drug consumption behavior turned out to be mainly positive, it hasn’t shown significant correlation either with the sociodemographic parameters or polypharmacy or connection with the professionals and the source of information. Most of the elderly considered the chronic disease as a load, but had done everything for the sake of the successful treatment. Prevalency of chronic diseases and the relatively high number of daily drug intake compared to international data proves that the role of health professionals have a great impact on the development and maintenance of compliance.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Antimicrobial resistance and the Sustainable Development Goals: an overview]


[The rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an expected consequence of evolutionary adaptation to these noxious agents and the widespread use of these drugs has significantly sped up this process. Infections caused by these bacteria are are directly associated with worse clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, excess mortality in the affected patients and an increasing burden and costs on the healthcare infrastructure. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were devised by the United Nations in 2015, to serve as a global blueprint for a better, more equitable, more sustainable life on our planet. The aim of this review is to provide an insight on the interactions between AMR and the successful attainment of the SDGs.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The role of APN in the Prevention and Care of Osteoporosis ]

GELENCSÉR Edina, ÚJVÁRINÉ Dr. Siket Adrienn, FERENCZY Mónika, SZABÓ László, PAKAI Annamária

[With age, the number of patients with osteoporosis advances. Internationally, Advanced Practice Nurses initiate screening tests and interventions as part of primary care to reduce complications. Due to the large number of acute illnesses, the search and care for patients with chronic illness is constantly decreasing. The MSc degree APN training was launched in 2017 in Hungary. Upon completing their studies, MSc nurses, in accordance with their qualifications, will work independently in the community practice. This confines the management of chronic diseases, performing physical examinations and setting up preliminary diagnosis. They decide on treatment plan, or its modification if necessary, on the performing of laboratory and imaging examinations, consultation. They perform special nursing tasks, carry out preventive examinations, participate in the primary care of acute events, and refer to an outpatient specialist. They order vaccinations, compile rehabilitation plans, and provide health counseling.]

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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Correlations Between Burnout and Socio-demographic and Workplace Related Factors Among Health-care Workers During The Covid-19 Pandemics]


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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Burnout and depression among healthcare nursing staff]


[The aim was to assess the levels of burnout and depressive symptoms among nursing staff members. We designed an online questionnaire for the present cross-sectional study, which was filled out by 10 285 participants between 01-27-2022 and 02-14-2022. The mean score of burnout showed a decrease compared to the score measured in 2021; however, the percent of nursing staff members suffering from burnout is still high (64.4%), from which 42% indicates severe burnout which would requires treatment. Concerning depressive symptoms, 57.8% of participants did not indicate the presence of depression, the rest presented different levels of depressive symptoms (6.8% showed severe depressive symptoms). Currently patients’ chance of recovery is under the expected level of what our healthcare system could provide, which is partially due to the affected mental state of healthcare nursing staff.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Comparative analysis of the full and shortened versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory]

ÁDÁM Szilvia, DOMBRÁDI Viktor, MÉSZÁROS Veronika, BÁNYAI Gábor, NISTOR Anikó, BÍRÓ Klára

[Background – The two free-to-use versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) have been increasingly utilised to assess the prevalence of burnout among human service workers. The OLBI has been developed to overcome some of the psychometric and conceptual limitations of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the gold standard of burnout measures. There is a lack of data on the structural validity of the Mini Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory in Hungary. Purpose – To assess the structural validity of the Hungarian versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and the Mini-Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Methods – We enrolled 564 participants (196 healthcare workers, 104 nurses and 264 clinicians) in three cross-sectional surveys. In our analysis we assessed the construct validity of the instruments using confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency using coefficient Cronbach’s α. Results – We confirmed the two-dimensional structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of the Mini-Oldenburg Inventory and a shortened version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Internal consistency coefficient confirmed the reliability of the instruments. The burnout appeared more than a 50 percent of the participants in every subsample. The prevalence of exhaustion was above 54.5% in each of the subsamples and the proportion of disengaged clinicians was particularly high (92%). Conclusions – Our findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Hungarian versions of the Mini-Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and a shortened version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory in the assessment of burnout among clinicians and nurses in Hungary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The examination of burnout among healthcare workers]

FEJES Éva, MÁK Kornél, POHL Marietta, BANK Gyula, FEHÉR Gergely, TIBOLD Antal

[Health reforms in recent decades have been largely based on economic considerations and have led to a significant problem in the sector today, with the issue of human resources being pushed back, which is exacerbated by burnout syndrome. The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to examine the complex background of burnout among health care workers in the cities of Komló, Pécs and Kecskemét. Baseline demographic data were recorded. Burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and the intensity of dysfunctional attitudes were also studied. Depression was detected by the Beck Scale and social supports, and effort-reward dysbalance were also examined. Overall 411 employees participated in our study. Age group distribution was middle aged access, vast majority of the workers was between 36 and 55 years. Mean burnout scale was 58.6 (SD = 16.3), 63 workers had mild (14.2%), 356 had moderate (80.7%) and 22 had severe (5.1%) burnout. In a multivariate analysis the type of work (OR = 1.018), age (OR = 2.514), marital status (OR = 1.148), job type (OR = 1.246) the lack of social support (OR = 1.189) and allowance (OR = 9.719) were independently associated with burnout (p < 0.05 in all cases). There was a significant association among burnout, depression and dysfunctional attitudes. The vast majority of our social workers suffered from moderate and a small, but significant proportion suffered from severe burnout. Our work draws attention to the modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors of burnout in this population, which may help in the development of preventive strategies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[High prevalence of burnout and depression may increase the incidence of comorbidities among Hungarian nurses]

ÁDÁM Szilvia, CSERHÁTI Zoltán, MÉSZÁROS Veronika

[Background and purpose - Poor mental health among health care professionals may have a significant impact on public health. There is limited information about the prevalence and potential consequences of burnout and depression among nurses in Hungary. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between burnout as well as depression and somatic symptoms as well as comorbidities among nurses in Hungary. Methods - Cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires among 1,713 nurses. Burnout and depression were assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBIHSS) and the Shortened Beck Depression Questionnaire, respectively. Somatisation was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15). Correlates of burnout and depression were assessed by logistic and linear regression analyses. Results - The prevalence of depressive symptom and clinical depression was 35% and 13%, respectively. The prevalence of moderate and high level emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and decreased personal accomplishment was 44%, 36% and 74%, respectively. We identified burnout and depression as a predictor of high prevalence of subjective somatisation. Whilst burnout showed a strong association with increased prevalence of hypertension, depression predicted almost all examined diseases, in particular, cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases, as well as neoplasms. Conclusion - We found high prevalence of burnout and depression among nurses in Hungary. As depression has been shown to be associated with higher prevalence of comorbidities than burnout, its consequences may be more significant. Appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and adequate treatment of burnout and depression may decrease the prevalence of ensuing comorbidities.]