Hypertension and nephrology

[Ventricular arrhythmia]


SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

Hypertension and nephrology - 2020;24(4)



Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Hyperkalaemia IV.]

DEÁK György, PATÓ Éva, KÉKES Ede

[The six-part summary presents the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of hyperkalaemia.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection]


[The modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus have been analyzed in detail recently. It can be stated that the deposition of micro-sized virus particles on different surfaces and in the air is the main reason for the strength and spread of the epidemic all over the world. Spread of virus is present in practically every event of our lives and daily activities. The usual movements of human-human contact, the specific habits of our own lives (face smoothing, eye rubbing etc.) increase the spread. The greatest threat is posed by infected but asymptomatic individuals as carriers of the virus, and the main concern is the speed of transmission dynamics. We have strong evidence that 1.5-2 meter distance, mask wearing, and eye protection are crucial in reducing the rate of virus transmission. It can be assumed that, like normal influenza virus infections, the appearance of the coronavirus shows a seasonal appearance.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension and reducing cardiovascular risk in general practitioners’ clusters]


[Hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are major public health issues. In their treatment non-pharmacological methods have a role in every case either alone or as a complement. Patient adherence is a key factor. The role of primary care is very important in the management and with general practitioners’ cluster model and with the involvement of new primary care professionals (for example: dietetitian, physiotherapist) the opportunities are expanding. In the A GP Cluster and in the Marosmenti GP Cluster the analysis of the patients’ results who participated in an individual health status examination, in dietetic and in physiotherapy services. Assessing the professionals’ attitudes towards GP cluster model. In the A GP Cluster 2409 people, in the Marosmenti GP Cluster 1826 people participated in an individual health status examination. 14.6% and 19.9% of the participants were under the age of 18. 58.9% and 60.7% of the participants over the age of 18 were female. 1083 and 232 patients used physiotherapy services, 147 and 187 people used dietetic services. The age distribution of the individual health status examinations is correspond to the Hungarian age pyramid. In addition to the preventive approach came into view the community based local health care services. The GP cluster model was welcomed by the patients, the physiotherapy was more popular than dietetic among them. All professionals of the GP clusters had a positive opinion of the professional work done in the project. Conclusion: There is a demand both from the patients and the healthcare professionals for the GP cluster concept. The establishing of an appropriate monitoring system and creating long-term, sustainable operating conditions are essential for achieving lasting social health gains. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Kidney transplantation in Hungary]


All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Effects of valproate, carbamazepine and levetiracetam on Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratio


Aim - To evaluate P-wave dispersion before and after antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment as well as to investigate the risk of ventricular repolarization using the Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with epileptic disorder. Methods - A total of 63 patients receiving AED therapy and 35 healthy adults were included. ECG recordings were obtained before and 3 months after anti-epileptic treatment among patients with epilepsy. For both groups, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured using a 12-lead ECG device. Results - Tp-e interval, Tpe/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were found to be higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05, for all), while QTmax ratio was significantly lower in the patient group. After 3 months of AED therapy, significant increases in QT max, QTc max, QTcd, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc were found among the patients (p<0.05). When the arrhythmic effects of the drugs before and after treatment were compared, especially in the valproic acid group, there were significant increases in Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc values after three months of treatment (p<0.05). Carbamazepine and levetiracetam groups were not statistically significant in terms of pre- and post-treatment values. Conclusions - It was concluded that an arrhythmogenic environment may be associated with the disease, and patients who received AED monotherapy may need to be followed up more closely for arrhythmia.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Role of β-blockers, especially carvedilol in the treatment of hypertension]

PÁLL Dénes, MARODA László, ZRÍNYI Miklós

[Changes in hypertension guidelines in the past years have affected the clinical thinking about β-blockers. Authors reviewed the development of β-blockers emphasizing the differences across various active pharmaceutical agents. Different hemodynamic and metabolic effects are being discussed in details for the third ge - neration vasodilatator carvedilol. Carvedilol has no effect on cardiac output but decreases peripheral vascular resistance which results in lower blood pressure values. However, carvedilol, opposite to unfavorable effects of traditional β-blockers, has a neutral impact on both carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. Its more advanced cardiac effects include decreased left ventricular hypertrophy and increased coronary flow reserve. Vasodilatator type β-blockers (carvedilol, nebivolol) are indicated in the combi - nation treatment of hypertension, especially when the patient has heart failure, coronary disease or suffered from a previous heart attack.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Diuretikumok hypertoniában - 2010]

BARNA István

[Diuretics (especially thiazide derivatives and indapamide that also has vasodilator efficacy) are considered as first line treatment in hypertension. They are particularly favourable in the treatment of overweight, elderly, isolated systolic hypertensive patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome or in mild renal and cardiac insufficiency. They can be ideally combined with other antihypertensive agents (primarily with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blocking agents és béta-blockers). If hypertension is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy or stroke indapamide is the appropriate choice. In case of left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure thiazide and/or furosemide is the adequate option. Low dose diuretics have no clinically relevant side effects and reduce cardiac mortality to the same extent as other pharmaceutical interventions.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[The beneficial effects of treatment with betablockers in patients with chronic heart failure have been demonstrated in several large, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials. In large trials with mortality as the endpoint, the long-term use of bisoprolol, carvedilol, nevibolol and metoprolol succinate have been associated with a reduction in total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, sudden cardiac death and death due to progression of heart failure in patients of functional classes II-IV. These favorable clinical experiences warrant a recommendation that beta-blockers should be used in all haemodynamically stable heart failure patients with reduced left ventricular systolic function who are on standard treatment, unless contraindicated. In this review, the most important data of clinical trials and practical considerations of therapy with beta-blockers in heart failure are summarized.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[For the optimal treatment of heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction, supplementation of the standard diuretics plus neurohormonal antagonists treatment with the direct vasodilator combination dihydralazine+nitrate, as well as with digitalis may be necessary. Addition of hydralazine/dihydralazine+nitrate to the treatment of chronic heart failure is recommended if ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers cannot be administered. Beta blockers should also be used in these cases. If symptoms persist or worsen, addition of this combination to the standard therapy is reasonable. Supplementation with digitalis, mostly digoxin should be considered in similar conditions. It can be especially beneficial for patients with high-ventricular-rate atrial fibrillation. To achieve maximal survival benefit, the dose of digoxin must not exceed 0.125 mg/day. Low body weight or muscle mass, significantly reduced renal function may make further dose reduction necessary. If renal function is severely limited, digitoxin instead of digoxin may be used.]