Hypertension and nephrology

[The selective imidazoline I agonist rilmenidine in the combined antihypertensive therapy]

KÉKES Ede

MARCH 20, 2015

Hypertension and nephrology - 2015;19(01)

[The rilmenidin as a imidazoline agonist drug strongly decreases the central simpathetic activity, renine release and the RAS activity. Because of these advantageous properties the peripheral vascular resistance falls and the blood pressure decreases. It is very useful especially in stress induced hypertension. The antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors and calciumantagonists are increased by rilmenidine. This drug decreases the inzuline resistance, it has a positive effect on the carbohydrate and fat metabolism, because it is useful as a complementary therapy in metabolic syndrome and of type II diabetes mellitus.]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Monitoring of effectiveness of ramipril-amlodipine fixed combination in metabolic syndrome, a non-interventional trial (The RAMSES Study)]

TOMCSÁNYI János, SIMONYI Gábor

[Hypertension is a cardiovascular risk factor. The 6th Cardiovascular Consensus Conference has recommended metabolic syndrome in high-risk category. In diabetic patients hypertension is observed in most cases. Aims: Monitoring the effectiveness and safety of the fix combination of ra - mipril/amlodipine therapy in patients with metabolic syndrome suffering from mild or moderate hypertension despite current antihypertensive treatment. Patients and methods: Open, prospective, phase IV clinical observational study, which involved known metabolic syndrome patients (age over 18 years) with mild or mode - rate hypertension. Ramipril/amlodipine fixed combination (5/5, 5/10, 10/5 or, 10/10 mg) were administered or titrated in 3 visits, during the 6 months of trial period. The doses of the fixed combination drugs were determined individually during the visits by physicians involved in the study. The target blood pressure value was 140/90 mmHg and <140/85 mmHg in diabetic patients. Results: 63% of total patient (9,052) have fulfilled the protocol during the four month of trial (5,707 patients). The age of patients was 61.3±11.97 (mean±SD) years, 2.736 (47.9%) men and 2,971 (52.1%) women. 74.0% of total metabolic patients has reached target blood pressure at the end of 6th month (primary end point). The blood pressure has decreased significantly from 158.7±8.97/91.9±7.30 mmHg (1. visit) to 131.6±7.73/79.8±12.20 mmHg (-27.1±10.43 /12.1±13.38 mmHg) to the 6th month (3. visit) (p<0.0001). Patients with hypertension in metabolic syndrome have tolerated the various fixed combination of ramipril/amlodipine well. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Effects of peripheral resistance lowering and elevating beta-blockers on central blood pressure - nebivolol in focus]

BENCZÚR Béla

[Central blood pressure, that is, blood pressure (BP) in the ascending aorta, is considered an important physiologic parameter as it reflects the hemodynamic relationship between the heart and the aorta, both in systole and in diastole. In the systolic phase, central BP represents the pressure against which the left ventricle has to eject blood during systolic contraction. Thus, central arterial pressure reflects both left ventricular stroke volume and afterload, defines cardiac work, and contributes to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive individuals. In the diastolic phase, central BP is a key determinant of the blood flow delivery to the myocardium. Despite the increasing knowledge regarding the importance of central blood pressure and the availability of non-invasive measurement technics it couldn’t spread in everyday clinical practice and rarely or not mentioned in the therapeutic guidelines. The different antihypertensiv drugs significantly differs based on their effects on central blood pressure particularly β-blockers. The so-called ’classical’ β-blockers have un - favourable effect on central blood pressure due to increasing peripherial vascular resistance. In the opposit the vasodilating β-blockers including nebivolol markedly decrease central blood pressure which could explain their beneficial effects.]

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[A Brief History of Hypertension. 2. ]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of the increase in the use of fix dosage combination of calcium channel blockers in the domestic medical practice between 2007 and 2013]

BARNA István, GYURCSÁNYI András

[Antihipertensive therapy in the complex treatment of diabetes mellitus, obesity and lipid metabolism disorder was discussed, which also means the fight against the emergence of cardiometabolic syndrome and chronic renal failure as well. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCB), b-blockers and thiazid diuretics with “A” level of evidence reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main effect of CCBs is effective antihipertensive vasodilatation, which is the basis of anti-ischaemic, anti-anginal and antihipertensive agents for use in everyday practice. Based on the database of the National Health Insurance, we analyzed changes in the turnover of CCBs between 2007 and 2013 the examined period among CCBs ordered with TB support amlodipin is the most frequently used active ingredient. In December 2007 almost 75% of the prescriptions was amlodipin. That increased to 87,12% by December 2013. CCBs ordered in monotherapy not changed in the examined period, while combinations increased continuously Among CCBs between 2007 and 2013 the fix dosage combinations available with TB support are: statins (atorvastatin + amlodipin), ACE inhibitors (ramipril + felodipin, lisinopril + amlodipin, perindopril + amlodipin, ramipril + amlodipin, verapamil + trandolapril) and b-blockers (metoprolol + felodipin). Using the assigned CCB monotherapy decreased steadily during the study period, while the use of combination formulations induced gradually increased. At the end of the examined seven year period more than 40% of the prescribed boxes were CCB in fix combination. Use of the combination of amlodipin + perindopril increased while amlodipin + lisinopril continuously reduced. The use of the combination of felodipin + ramipril also decreased.]

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of differences between diuretics in the treatment of hypertension - Metabolic neutrality in focus]

ALFÖLDI Sándor

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Hypertension and nephrology

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Hyperuricemia in hypertension. Domestic experience based on the data of the Hungarian Hypertonia Register 2011., 2013., 2015. Part II.]

ALFÖLDI Sándor, PAKSY András, KÉKES Ede

[Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is frequent in hypertension and its prevalence is increasing. Authors studied the incidence of serum uric acid levels and its correlation with age, risk factors, anthropological, metabolic characteristics, blood pressure, blood pressure target, organ damage, age-related co-morbidity in 47,372 hypertensive patients (22,688 males, 24,694 women). In the second part of their analysis the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 13.8% in hypertensive men and 21.6% in women. The age, BMI, waist diameter, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and onset of hypertension, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, blood glucose and serum creatinine were slightly higher, but serum HDL cholesterol and eGFR were slightly lower in hyperuricemic hypertensive patients, independently of their gender. Among hypertension mediated organ damage ischemic and left ventricular hypertensive ECG alterations, mild chronic kidney disease and proteinuria, among hypertension associated diseases diabetes associated ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease associated diabetes and both ischemic and chronic kidney disease associated diabetes were significantly more frequent in hyperuricemic hypertensive patients.]

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[THE IMPORTANCE OF HYPERTENSION IN CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES]

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[Stroke is a highly prevalent disorder worldwide; it is the third main cause of death and the leading cause of severe disability. Recent data showed that 72-86% of cerebrovascular disorders are of ischaemic type. Arterial hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor for both haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, it is present in approximately 70% of cases. All forms of hypertension, isolated systolic or diastolic and combined hypertension increase stroke risk about 3-4 times and the relationship with systolic blood pressure may even be stronger than with diastolic blood pressure. Hypertension is very common after acute stroke. In this phase the cerebral autoregulation is disturbed in the region of focal brain ischaemia or haemorrhage such that cerebral blood flow is directly dependent on systemic blood pressure. It is therefore essential to avoid systemic hypotension in acute stroke patients and the reduction of high blood pressure may lower cerebral blood flow in the ischemic penumbra. Evidence from clinical data shows that control of blood pressure leads to lower risk of first or reccurent stroke and patients have shown beneficial effects especially of ACE inhibitors and diuretics. In the PROGRESS study both hypertensive and non-hypertensive cerebrovascular patients benefited from antihypertensive therapy. Previous results suggests that there may be additional beneficial effects of the ACEinhibitor therapy not related to blood pressure lowering in the prevention of stroke.]