Hypertension and nephrology

[Report on the 49th ERA-EDTA Congress]

MAY 20, 2012

Hypertension and nephrology - 2012;16(02)

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Gender differencies in coronary reactivity in angiotensin II hypertension rat model]

MÁTRAI Máté, NÁDASY György L, HETHÉSSY Judit, SZEKERES Mária, MONOS Emil, SZÉKÁCS Béla, VÁRBÍRÓ Szabolcs

[It is known that hypertension shows several gender specific elements both in pathogenesis and in therapy. Understanding this phenomenon may bring us closer to individualized therapy. That was the reason why we examined process of hypertensive adaptation on the level of small intramural coronary arteries. 10-10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Animals received osmotic pumps in anaesthesia, which emitted 100 ng/bwkg/min angiotensin II acetate for four weeks. After four weeks treatment, animals were sacrified and heart weights were measured. We isolated intramural, small branches of the left anterior descendant coronary artery, placed them into vessel chamber and tested biomechanical properties and pharmacological reactivity. Heart weight and wall thickness were higher in females comparing to males. However, basal vascular tone and thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction were elevated in males. Bradykinin relaxation was bigger in females. In female animals inward eutrophic remodeling was found, while in males increased wall stress and elastic moduli dominated the adaptation process. In conclusion, initial steps of angiotensin II mediated hypertension induced markedly gender dependent alterations.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Position Paper Concerning the Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin System) in Chronic Renal Disease]

MÁTYUS János, KISS István

Hypertension and nephrology

[Too early publication? (priority of the Hungarian authors was saved by a South- American radiologist)]

RADÓ János

[It is supposed that the invention of diuretic (furosemide) renography was a premature discovery. This is suggested by the fact that it was rediscovered by more than one people. Author supported this contention by a statistical analysis of „citation intervals” performed on the basis of Garfield’s suggestions. The length of the time from the description of the procedure to the appearance of citations („citation interval”) proved to be an average of 21.3±9.6 (SD) years, significantly longer than in the case of the author’s five important other recognitions combined, where the average citation interval was 8.7±7.4 (SD) years (p<0.01). Camargo a South-American radiologist who first confirmed the original study, was later just in time the editor of a North American journal to save the priority of the original inventor Hungarian authors. In medical science the investigators take the risks in the interest of the patients including „publishing too early”.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Congress Report – The 17th Debrecen Nephrology Days, 30 May – 2 June 2012]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Sleep disorders and quality of life in patients after kidney transplantation]

TURÁNYI Csilla Zita, ZALAI Dóra, MOLNÁR Miklós Zsolt, NOVÁK Márta, MUCSI István

[Kidney transplantation provides the best outcomes, concerning morbidity, mortality and health related quality of life for patients with end stage renal disease. Health related quality of life is increasingly recognized as an important outcome measure in patients with different chronic medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia, sleep apnea syndrome and restless legs syndrome are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of insomnia and restless legs syndrome is similar in kidney transplanted patients to the prevalence observed in the general population. On the other hand, the prevalence of sleep apnea is considerably higher, about 30%. The association between sleep disorders and impaired health related quality of life has been relatively well documented in dialysis patients but only scarce information has been published about the kidney transplanted population. In this paper we summarize published data about sleep disorders and also about their association with health related quality of life in the kidney transplanted population.]

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Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Autonomic nervous system may be affected after carpal tunnel syndrome surgery: A possible mechanism for persistence of symptoms after surgery

ONDER Burcu, KELES Yavuz Betul

After carpal tunnel surgery, some patients report complaints such as edema, pain, and numbness. Purpose – The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system function in patients with a history of carpal tunnel surgery using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Thirty three patients (55 ±10 years old) with a history of unilateral operation for carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. The SSR test was performed for both hands. Both upper extremities median and ulnar nerve conduction results were recorded. A reduced amplitude (p=0.006) and delayed latency (p<0.0001) were detected in the SSR test on the operated side compared to contralateral side. There was no correlation between SSR and carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Although complex regional pain syndrome does not develop in patients after carpal tunnel surgery, some of the complaints may be caused by effects on the autonomic nervous system.

Clinical Neuroscience

Extraskeletal, intradural, non-metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma. Case report

OTTÓFFY Gábor, KOMÁROMY Hedvig

Intracranial localization of Ewing’s sarcoma is considerably very rare. Herein, we present clinical and neuroimaging findings regarding a 4-year-old boy with intracranial Ewing’s sarcoma. He was born prematurely, suffered intraventricular haemorrhage, posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus developed, and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted in the newborn period. The patient endured re­gular follow ups, no signs of shunt malfunction nor increased intracranial pressure were observed. The last neuroima­ging examination was performed at 8 months of age. Upon reaching the age of 4 years, repeated vomiting and focal seizures began, and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure were detected. A brain MRI depicted a left frontoparietal space-occupying lesion infiltrating the superior sagittal sinus. The patient underwent a craniotomy resulting in the total excision of the tumour. The histological examination of the tissue revealed a small round blue cell tumour. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of EWSR1 gene translocation with FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). No additional metastases were detected during the staging examinations. The patient was treated in accordance to the EuroEwing 99 protocol. Today, ten years onward, the patient is tumour and seizure free and has a reasonably high quality of life.

Clinical Neuroscience

Valproic acid associated pleuropericardial effusion: case report

DEMIR Figen Ulku

Introduction - Valproic acid is an effective antiepileptic and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although there are frequently seen side effects, effusions between layers of pleural and pericardial membranes are rare to be seen. Case - Pleuropericardial effusion was detected in a 23 years old woman who was under valproic acid treatment because of epileptic seizure. After 1 year of valproic acid treatment, patient complained of dyspnea. As all the researches intended on etiology were usual, valproic acid has been thought to be responsible for the matter. Control examination after 1.5 months regarding the end of treatment revealed complete recovery of pleuropericardial effusion. Discussion - Pleural and pericardial effusions are rarely seen complications related to the use of valproic acid. It must also be kept in mind that valproic acid causes a potential for such side effects which can be blamed etiologically when the other possibilities for patients are excluded.

Clinical Neuroscience

Marchiafava-Bignami disease: Report of three cases

GUNAY Gul, MESUDE Özerden, ZEYNEP Ozdemir, CAHIT Keskinkiliç, HAKAN Selçuk, BATUHAN Kara, AYSUN Soysal

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare alcohol-associated disorder characterized by demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum. We report three patients who had history of chronic alcoholism, different clinical presentation and MRI findings consistent with the diagnosis of Marchiafava-Bignami disease.