Hypertension and nephrology

[Post-career development of cardiometabolic changes and hypertension in competitive athletes]

LELBACH Ádám1,2,3,4, KÁNTOR Márk2,3, KOLLER Ákos2,3,5

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

Hypertension and nephrology - 2020;24(4)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.24.017

[Regular physical activity is essential in delaying the aging processes (e.g. arterial remodelling – stiffening, metabolism, bodyweight), the beneficial effects of competitive sports – especially strength sports – according to the recent data of the literature are questionable. The beneficial effects of physical activity on the cardiovascular (CV) system are well known, however less is known regarding the delayed impacts of high intensity competitive sports on the CV system, especially after the sport career is over. This review summarizes the effects of active competitive sport and the post-career period on the cardiometabolic system with special attention to the systemic blood pressure and the development of metabolic syndrome. After sport career, the welldeveloped high performance cardiovascular- and metabolic system suddenly is much less used, but still supported by sport-level diet. It is well known that hypertension is a significant pathogenic factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, characterized – among others – by reduced elasticity of large- and medium- sized vessels thereby importantly contributing to the development of systolic hypertension. Inflammation and thrombus formation both play an important role in the development of vascular injury and atherosclerosis. The increased tone of microvessels can impair the blood supply of certain organs, including the coronary circulation. It has been ample shown, that regular non-competitive, aerobic exercise activities are important factors in preventing hypertension. Such pathological changes become more evident after the development of post-career obesity, as well as the development of hypertension due to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system through sodium retention and other metabolic changes (increased glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus). It has been ample shown, that regular non-competitive, dynamic aerobic exercise activities are important factors in preventing hypertension. The frequency, intensity, type, and time (FITT) principle of exercise prescription is the first and common therapeutic approach, which represents the translation of cardiovascular basic science research results into hypertension treatment, thus can provide a personalized physical activity program/therapy according to medical needs not just for the post-career sportspersons, but the wide range of patients.]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Geriátriai Tanszéki Csoport, II. Sz. Belgyógyászati Klinika, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest
  2. Transzlációs Medicina Intézet, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Morfológiai és Fiziológiai Intézet, ETK, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest
  3. Sportélettani Kutató Központ, Sport- és Egészségtudományi Intézet, Testnevelési Egyetem, Budapest
  4. Dr. Rose Magánkórház és Rendelőintézet, Budapest
  5. New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY10595, USA

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